Get Our Extension

2022–2023 United Kingdom Group A streptococcus outbreak

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
2022–2023 United Kingdom Group A streptococcus outbreak
DiseaseGroup A streptococcal infection (iGAS)
Scarlet fever
Bacteria strainGroup A streptococcus
LocationUnited Kingdom
Confirmed casesiGAS: >1,675
Scarlet fever: >38,429
Deaths
236
Fatality rate13.1% (iGAS)

In late 2022, an ongoing disease outbreak of the Group A streptococcus bacteria began in the United Kingdom, which is mostly referred to as the Strep A outbreak in the media. This bacteria causes Group A streptococcal infection (Strep A or iGAS) and scarlet fever. A total of 236 deaths from iGAS have been recorded in the United Kingdom. 38 of these were children, 29 in England,[1] five in Wales,[2] three in Scotland,[3] and one in Northern Ireland.[4]

There were 1,675 notifications of iGAS recorded in England between 12 September 2022 and 15 January 2023. Notifications of scarlet fever have also seen a large increase, with 38,429 infections reported in England during the same period.[5]

Discover more about 2022–2023 United Kingdom Group A streptococcus outbreak related topics

Disease outbreak

Disease outbreak

In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease when cases are in excess of normal expectancy for the location or season. It may affect a small and localized group or impact upon thousands of people across an entire continent. The number of cases varies according to the disease-causing agent, and the size and type of previous and existing exposure to the agent. Outbreaks include many epidemics, which term is normally only for infectious diseases, as well as diseases with an environmental origin, such as a water or foodborne disease. They may affect a region in a country or a group of countries. Pandemics are near-global disease outbreaks when multiple and various countries around the Earth are soon infected.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242,495 square kilometres (93,628 sq mi), with an estimated 2020 population of more than 67 million people.

Group A streptococcal infection

Group A streptococcal infection

Group A streptococcal infections are a number of infections with Streptococcus pyogenes, a group A streptococcus (GAS). S. pyogenes is a species of beta-hemolytic gram-positive bacteria that is responsible for a wide range of infections that are mostly common and fairly mild. If the bacteria enter the bloodstream an infection can become severe and life-threatening, and is called an invasive GAS (iGAS).

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever, also known as Scarlatina, is an infectious disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a Group A streptococcus (GAS). The infection is a type of Group A streptococcal infection. It most commonly affects children between five and 15 years of age. The signs and symptoms include a sore throat, fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and a characteristic rash. The face is flushed and the rash is red and blanching. It typically feels like sandpaper and the tongue may be red and bumpy. The rash occurs as a result of capillary damage by exotoxins produced by S.pyogenes. On darker-pigmented skin the rash may be hard to discern.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Wales

Wales

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2021 of 3,107,500 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate. The capital and largest city is Cardiff.

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. It also contains more than 790 islands, principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. Most of the population, including the capital Edinburgh, is concentrated in the Central Belt—the plain between the Scottish Highlands and the Southern Uplands—in the Scottish Lowlands.

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, that is variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares an open border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2021, its population was 1,903,100, making up about 27% of Ireland's population and about 3% of the UK's population. The Northern Ireland Assembly, established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998, holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the UK Government. The government of Northern Ireland cooperates with the government of the Republic of Ireland in several areas agreed under the terms of the Belfast Agreement. The Republic of Ireland also has a consultative role on non-devolved governmental matters through the British-Irish Governmental Conference (BIIG).

Background

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a bacteria which can cause infectious diseases such as Group A streptococcal infection (often shortened to Strep A) and scarlet fever. It has been estimated that GAS infections can cause over 500,000 deaths per year.[6] In very rare occasions, GAS can get into the bloodstream and cause an illness called invasive group A strep (iGAS) which can be very serious, particularly in older, younger and more vulnerable groups.[7]

In the United Kingdom, the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) has said that the last comparably high season was the 2017/18 season, where a total of 355 deaths occurred from iGAS, 27 of which were children.[7] During this season the UKHSA also received total of 30,768 reports of scarlet fever.[5]

Discover more about Background related topics

Bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep biosphere of Earth's crust. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies; bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised and there are many species that cannot be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

Group A streptococcal infection

Group A streptococcal infection

Group A streptococcal infections are a number of infections with Streptococcus pyogenes, a group A streptococcus (GAS). S. pyogenes is a species of beta-hemolytic gram-positive bacteria that is responsible for a wide range of infections that are mostly common and fairly mild. If the bacteria enter the bloodstream an infection can become severe and life-threatening, and is called an invasive GAS (iGAS).

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever, also known as Scarlatina, is an infectious disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a Group A streptococcus (GAS). The infection is a type of Group A streptococcal infection. It most commonly affects children between five and 15 years of age. The signs and symptoms include a sore throat, fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and a characteristic rash. The face is flushed and the rash is red and blanching. It typically feels like sandpaper and the tongue may be red and bumpy. The rash occurs as a result of capillary damage by exotoxins produced by S.pyogenes. On darker-pigmented skin the rash may be hard to discern.

UK Health Security Agency

UK Health Security Agency

The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) is a government agency in the United Kingdom, responsible since April 2021 for England-wide public health protection and infectious disease capability, and replacing Public Health England. It is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC).

Deaths

So far, 236 deaths have been recorded within 7 days of an iGAS infection, 38 of which were children. The other reported deaths are people over the age of at least 15.[5] Usually, only one or two children under the age of 10 die from Strep A during a typical winter.[3]

The case fatality rate (CFR) for iGAS from 12 September to 15 January in England was 13.1%.[5]

Country Child deaths Adult deaths Total
 England 29 182 211
 Scotland 3 16 19[8]
 Wales 5 - 5
Northern Ireland 1 - 1
United Kingdom Total 38 198 236
As of 15 January 2023

Discover more about Deaths related topics

Case fatality rate

Case fatality rate

In epidemiology, case fatality rate (CFR) – or sometimes more accurately case-fatality risk – is the proportion of people diagnosed with a certain disease, who end up dying of it. Unlike a disease's mortality rate, the CFR does not take into account the time period between disease onset and death. A CFR is generally expressed as a percentage. It represents a measure of disease lethality and may change with different treatments. CFRs are most often used for with discrete, limited-time courses, such as acute infections.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. It also contains more than 790 islands, principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. Most of the population, including the capital Edinburgh, is concentrated in the Central Belt—the plain between the Scottish Highlands and the Southern Uplands—in the Scottish Lowlands.

Wales

Wales

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2021 of 3,107,500 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate. The capital and largest city is Cardiff.

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, that is variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares an open border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2021, its population was 1,903,100, making up about 27% of Ireland's population and about 3% of the UK's population. The Northern Ireland Assembly, established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998, holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the UK Government. The government of Northern Ireland cooperates with the government of the Republic of Ireland in several areas agreed under the terms of the Belfast Agreement. The Republic of Ireland also has a consultative role on non-devolved governmental matters through the British-Irish Governmental Conference (BIIG).

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242,495 square kilometres (93,628 sq mi), with an estimated 2020 population of more than 67 million people.

Cases

The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) said that an average of 2,861 (range 479 to 5,051) of scarlet fever were recorded during the same period over the past 5 years.[5]

The following shows the number of notifications of iGAS and scarlet fever published by data from the UKHSA from 12 September to 15 January.[5]

Country iGAS Scarlet fever Total
 England 1,675 38,429 40,108
 Scotland - - -
 Wales - - -
Northern Ireland - - -
United Kingdom Total 1,675 38,429 40,108
As of 15 January 2023

Discover more about Cases related topics

UK Health Security Agency

UK Health Security Agency

The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) is a government agency in the United Kingdom, responsible since April 2021 for England-wide public health protection and infectious disease capability, and replacing Public Health England. It is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC).

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. It also contains more than 790 islands, principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. Most of the population, including the capital Edinburgh, is concentrated in the Central Belt—the plain between the Scottish Highlands and the Southern Uplands—in the Scottish Lowlands.

Wales

Wales

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2021 of 3,107,500 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate. The capital and largest city is Cardiff.

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, that is variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares an open border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2021, its population was 1,903,100, making up about 27% of Ireland's population and about 3% of the UK's population. The Northern Ireland Assembly, established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998, holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the UK Government. The government of Northern Ireland cooperates with the government of the Republic of Ireland in several areas agreed under the terms of the Belfast Agreement. The Republic of Ireland also has a consultative role on non-devolved governmental matters through the British-Irish Governmental Conference (BIIG).

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242,495 square kilometres (93,628 sq mi), with an estimated 2020 population of more than 67 million people.

Response

During a House of Commons debate on 7 December 2022, Prime Minister Rishi Sunak was accused of downplaying the outbreak after leader of the opposition Keir Starmer questioned him on his handling of the disease. Sunak stated that the infection 'has not become more lethal'.[9]

A survey of 626 parents' attitudes towards Strep A revealed a range of misinformation narratives, with 32% thinking that COVID-19 and flu vaccines were partly responsible for an increase in Strep A infections. Furthermore, 49% were unsure as to whether there is a link between nasal flu vaccines and Strep A. It also found that 28% were sceptical about Strep A, believing that it is a disguise being used to cover up something else. Increasing migration and refugee numbers were blamed by 33% of respondents for the increase in infections.[10]

Discover more about Response related topics

House of Commons

House of Commons

The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In both of these countries, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliament. The leader of the majority party in the House of Commons by convention becomes the prime minister. Other parliaments have also had a lower house called a "House of Commons".

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The prime minister advises the sovereign on the exercise of much of the royal prerogative, chairs the Cabinet and selects its ministers. As modern prime ministers hold office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the House of Commons, they sit as members of Parliament.

Rishi Sunak

Rishi Sunak

Rishi Sunak is a British politician who has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since October 2022. He previously held two cabinet positions under Boris Johnson, lastly as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2020 to 2022. Sunak has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Richmond (Yorks) since 2015.

Keir Starmer

Keir Starmer

Sir Keir Rodney Starmer is a British politician and barrister who has served as Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the Labour Party since 2020. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Holborn and St Pancras since 2015. He was previously Director of Public Prosecutions from 2008 to 2013. Ideologically, Starmer has been described as being on the soft left within the Labour Party.

Misinformation

Misinformation

Misinformation is incorrect or misleading information. It differs from disinformation, which is deliberately deceptive. Rumors are information not attributed to any particular source, and so are unreliable and often unverified, but can turn out to be either true or false. Even if later retracted, misinformation can continue to influence actions and memory. People may be more prone to believe misinformation because they are emotionally connected to what they are listening to or are reading. The role of social media has made information readily available to society at anytime, and it connects vast groups of people along with their information at one time. Advances in technology has impacted the way people communicate information and the way misinformation is spread. Misinformation has impacts on societies' ability to receive information which then influences our communities, politics, and medical field.

COVID-19 vaccine

COVID-19 vaccine

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

Human migration

Human migration

Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location. The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form of human migration globally. Migration is often associated with better human capital at both individual and household level, and with better access to migration networks, facilitating a possible second move. It has a high potential to improve human development, and some studies confirm that migration is the most direct route out of poverty.Age is also important for both work and non-work migration. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups. There are four major forms of migration: invasion, conquest, colonization and emigration/immigration.

Refugee

Refugee

A refugee, conventionally speaking, is a person who has lost the protection of his or her country of origin and who cannot or is unwilling to return there due to well-founded fear of persecution. Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) if they formally make a claim for asylum.

Source: "2022–2023 United Kingdom Group A streptococcus outbreak", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2022–2023_United_Kingdom_Group_A_streptococcus_outbreak.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ "Strep A: Five more children confirmed to have died in England from the bacterial infection". Sky News. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  2. ^ "Weekly iGAS update". Public Health Wales. 3 January 2023. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Group A streptococcal infections". Public Health Scotland. 25 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  4. ^ Mundasad, Smitha (8 December 2022). "GPs say parents need clearer strep A advice". BBC News. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Group A streptococcal infections: seventh update on seasonal activity in England". UKHSA. 19 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  6. ^ Cohen-Poradosu, Ronit; Kasper, Dennis (2007). "Group A Streptococcus Epidemiology and Vaccine Implications". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 45 (7): 863–5. doi:10.1086/521263. PMID 17806050.
  7. ^ a b "UKHSA update on scarlet fever and invasive Group A strep". UKHSA. 8 December 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  8. ^ "Group A streptococcal infections". Public Health Scotland. 25 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  9. ^ Ashton, Emily (7 December 2022). "Strep A Infection Has Not Become 'More Lethal,' UK's Sunak Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  10. ^ Barrett, Evie (16 December 2022). "Strep A misinformation on the rise as parents believe vaccines cause infections". PRWeek. Retrieved 14 January 2023.


The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.