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1978

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1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1978th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 978th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1970s decade.

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Roman numerals

Roman numerals

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers are written with combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, each letter with a fixed integer value, modern style uses only these seven:

Common year starting on Sunday

Common year starting on Sunday

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The current year, 2023, is a common year starting on Sunday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2017 and the next one will be 2034 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more.

Gregorian calendar

Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most parts of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a modification of, and replacement for, the Julian calendar. The principal change was to space leap years differently so as to make the average calendar year 365.2425 days long, more closely approximating the 365.2422-day 'tropical' or 'solar' year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun.

Common Era

Common Era

Common Era (CE) and Before the Common Era (BCE) are year notations for the Gregorian calendar, the world's most widely used calendar era. Common Era and Before the Common Era are alternatives to the original Anno Domini (AD) and Before Christ (BC) notations used for the same calendar era. The two notation systems are numerically equivalent: "2023 CE" and "AD 2023" each describe the current year; "400 BCE" and "400 BC" are the same year.

Anno Domini

Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means 'in the year of the Lord', but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to 'in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ'. The form "BC" is specific to English and equivalent abbreviations are used in other languages: the Latin form is Ante Christum natum but is rarely seen.

2nd millennium

2nd millennium

The second millennium of the Anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000.

20th century

20th century

The 20th (twentieth) century began on January 1, 1901 (MCMI), and ended on December 31, 2000 (MM). The 20th century was dominated by significant events that defined the modern era: sixth mass extinction, Spanish flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear weapons, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts, and technological advances. These reshaped the political and social structure of the globe.

1970s

1970s

The 1970s was a decade that began on January 1, 1970, and ended on December 31, 1979.

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

September 6: Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter, and Menachem Begin meet on the Aspen Cabin patio at Camp David.
September 6: Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter, and Menachem Begin meet on the Aspen Cabin patio at Camp David.

October

November

December

Date unknown

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January 1

January 1

January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is also known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year.

Air India Flight 855

Air India Flight 855

Air India Flight 855 was a scheduled passenger flight from Santa Cruz Airport, Bombay to Dubai International Airport, Dubai. On New Years Day in 1978, the Boeing 747 operating the flight crashed about 3 km off the coast of Bandra, Bombay. All 213 passengers and crew on board were killed. An investigation into the crash determined the most likely probable cause was the captain becoming spatially disoriented after the failure of one of the flight instruments in the cockpit. It was Air India's deadliest aircraft crash until the bombing of Flight 182 in 1985. It was also the deadliest aviation accident in India until the Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision in 1996. As of 2022, Flight 855 is still the second deadliest aircraft crash in both of these categories.

Boeing 747

Boeing 747

The Boeing 747 is a large, long-range wide-body airliner designed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States between 1968 and 2022. After introducing the 707 in October 1958, Pan Am wanted a jet 2+1⁄2 times its size, to reduce its seat cost by 30%. In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin-aisle airliner. In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 Boeing 747-100 aircraft and in late 1966, Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop the JT9D engine, a high-bypass turbofan. On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the custom-built Everett Plant, the world's largest building by volume. The first flight took place on February 9, 1969, and the 747 was certified in December of that year. It entered service with Pan Am on January 22, 1970. The 747 was the first airplane dubbed "Jumbo Jet" as the first wide-body airliner.

January 5

January 5

January 5 is the fifth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 360 days remain until the end of the year.

Bülent Ecevit

Bülent Ecevit

Mustafa Bülent Ecevit was a Turkish politician, statesman, poet, writer, scholar, and journalist, who served as the Prime Minister of Turkey four times between 1974 and 2002. He served as prime minister in 1974, 1977, 1978–1979, and 1999–2002. Ecevit was chairman of the Republican People's Party (CHP) between 1972 and 1980, and in 1987 he became chairman of the Democratic Left Party (DSP).

January 6

January 6

January 6 is the sixth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 359 days remain until the end of the year.

Holy Crown of Hungary

Holy Crown of Hungary

The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen, named in honour of Saint Stephen I of Hungary, was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century. The Crown symbolized the King's authority over the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, and it was a key mark of legitimacy. Through the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, until 1916 and the last king Charles IV. The only kings not so crowned were Wladyslaw I, John Sigismund Zápolya and Joseph II.

January 10

January 10

January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 355 days remain until the end of the year.

Anastasio Somoza Debayle

Anastasio Somoza Debayle

Anastasio "Tachito" Somoza Debayle was the President of Nicaragua from 1 May 1967 to 1 May 1972 and from 1 December 1974 to 17 July 1979. As head of the National Guard, he was de facto ruler of the country between 1972 and 1974, even during the period when he was not the de jure ruler.

January 18

January 18

January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 347 days remain until the end of the year.

European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights, also known as the Strasbourg Court, is an international court of the Council of Europe which interprets the European Convention on Human Rights. The court hears applications alleging that a contracting state has breached one or more of the human rights enumerated in the Convention or its optional protocols to which a member state is a party. The European Convention on Human Rights is also referred to by the initials "ECHR". The court is based in Strasbourg, France.

January 22

January 22

January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 343 days remain until the end of the year.

Births

Births
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

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Karina Smirnoff

Karina Smirnoff

Karina Smirnoff is a Soviet-born American professional ballroom dancer of Ukrainian origins. She is known as a professional dancer on Dancing with the Stars, where she won the thirteenth season with army veteran and soap opera star J. R. Martinez. She has also won two runner-up titles, a semifinal title, and several quarterfinal titles.

January Jones

January Jones

January Kristen Jones is an American actress and model. She played Betty Draper in Mad Men (2007–2015), for which she was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress – Television Series Drama and a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. She also portrayed Melissa Chartres in The Last Man on Earth (2015–2018) and has starred in films such as American Wedding (2003), We Are Marshall (2006), The Boat That Rocked (2009), Unknown (2011), Seeking Justice (2011), and X-Men: First Class (2011).

AJ McLean

AJ McLean

Alexander James McLean is an American singer, dancer, actor and a member of the pop vocal group Backstreet Boys.

Kelly Sullivan (actress)

Kelly Sullivan (actress)

Kelly Sullivan is an American actress. She is known for her role as Kate Howard on the ABC daytime soap opera General Hospital, which she portrayed from September 2011 until August 2013, before reappearing briefly in October 2014. She also played Sage Warner on the CBS daytime soap opera The Young and the Restless from October 28, 2014 to June 22, 2016. She starred as Bonnie Hayes in the TLC drama series Too Close to Home.

Ashton Kutcher

Ashton Kutcher

Christopher Ashton Kutcher is an American actor, producer, entrepreneur, and former model. He is the recipient of various accolades, including a People's Choice Award, and nominations for two Young Artist Awards, a Screen Actors Guild Award, and a Critics' Choice Movie Award.

Danai Gurira

Danai Gurira

Danai Jekesai Gurira is an American actress and playwright. She is best known for her starring roles as Michonne on the AMC horror drama series The Walking Dead and as Okoye in the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero films, Black Panther and Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame (2019), and Black Panther: Wakanda Forever (2022).

Jensen Ackles

Jensen Ackles

Jensen Ross Ackles is an American actor. He is best known for his portrayal of Dean Winchester in The WB/CW dark fantasy drama series Supernatural (2005–2020) and appearing in television series such as NBC's Days of Our Lives as Eric Brady, super soldiers Ben/X5-493 and Alec/X5-494 in Fox's Dark Angel, Jason Teague in The WB/CW's Smallville, and Ben/Soldier Boy in Amazon Prime Video's The Boys. He also starred as the lead in the box office success My Bloody Valentine 3D, and provided the voices of Jason Todd in the animated film Batman: Under the Red Hood, and Bruce Wayne/Batman in the animated adaptation of Batman: The Long Halloween.

Claudio Sanchez

Claudio Sanchez

Claudio Paul Sanchez III is an American writer and musician of Puerto Rican and Italian descent best known for being the lead singer, guitarist and primary lyricist for the alternative/progressive rock group Coheed and Cambria. He is the creator of the comic book series The Amory Wars, as well as Key of Z and Kill Audio, both co-written with his wife Chondra Echert. Sanchez co-authored the novel Year of the Black Rainbow with Peter David.

Fernandão (footballer, born 1978)

Fernandão (footballer, born 1978)

Fernando Lúcio da Costa, better known as Fernandão, was a Brazilian professional footballer who played as a striker.

Antonio Margarito

Antonio Margarito

Antonio Margarito Montiel is a Mexican-American former professional boxer who competed between 1994 and 2017. He held multiple welterweight world championships, including the WBO title from 2002 to 2007, the IBF title in 2008, and the WBA (Super) title from 2008 to 2009. He also challenged three times for a light middleweight world title between 2004 and 2011. Nicknamed El Tornado de Tijuana, Margarito was known for his aggressive pressure fighting style and exceptionally durable chin.

Duncan James

Duncan James

Duncan James is an English singer and actor. He became widely known in 2001 as a member of the boy band Blue and later for playing Ryan Knight in the British soap opera Hollyoaks.

James Franco

James Franco

James Edward Franco is an American actor and filmmaker. He has starred in numerous films, including Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy (2002–2007), Milk (2008), Eat, Pray, Love (2010), Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011), Spring Breakers (2012), and Oz the Great and Powerful (2013). He is known for his collaborations with fellow actor Seth Rogen, having appeared in eight films and one television series with him, examples being Pineapple Express (2008), This Is the End (2013), Sausage Party (2016), and The Disaster Artist (2017), for which he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. For his role in 127 Hours (2010), he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor.

Deaths

Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

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Aldo Moro

Aldo Moro

Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro was an Italian statesman and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy (DC). He served as prime minister of Italy from December 1963 to June 1968 and then from November 1974 to July 1976.

Ahmad al-Ghashmi

Ahmad al-Ghashmi

Ahmad bin Hussein al-Ghashmi was the President of the Yemen Arab Republic from 11 October 1977 until his death eight months later. Al-Ghashmi assumed power when his predecessor, Ibrahim al-Hamdi, was assassinated. Ghashmi himself was assassinated later.

Francisco Mendes

Francisco Mendes

Francisco Mendes, nom de guerre Chico Té, was a Bissau-Guinean politician. He was the country's first Prime Minister and held that position from September 24, 1973, until his fatal car accident under suspicious circumstances on July 7, 1978.

Jomo Kenyatta

Jomo Kenyatta

Jomo Kenyatta was a Kenyan anti-colonial activist and politician who governed Kenya as its Prime Minister from 1963 to 1964 and then as its first President from 1964 to his death in 1978. He was the country's first indigenous president and played a significant role in the transformation of Kenya from a colony of the British Empire into an independent republic. Ideologically an African nationalist and conservative, he led the Kenya African National Union (KANU) party from 1961 until his death.

Keith Moon

Keith Moon

Keith John Moon was an English drummer for the rock band the Who. He was noted for his unique style of playing and his eccentric, often self-destructive behaviour.

Jack L. Warner

Jack L. Warner

Jack Leonard Warner was an American film executive, who was the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. Warner's career spanned some forty-five years, its duration surpassing that of any other of the seminal Hollywood studio moguls.

Jacques Brel

Jacques Brel

Jacques Romain Georges Brel was a Belgian singer and actor who composed and performed literate, thoughtful, and theatrical songs that generated a large, devoted following—initially in Belgium and France, later throughout the world. He is considered a master of the modern chanson.

Harvey Milk

Harvey Milk

Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician and the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Milk was born and raised in New York where he acknowledged his homosexuality as an adolescent, but chose to pursue sexual relationships with secrecy and discretion well into his adult years. His experience in the counterculture of the 1960s caused him to shed many of his conservative views about individual freedom and the expression of sexuality.

Golda Meir

Golda Meir

Golda Meir was an Israeli politician, teacher, and kibbutznikit who served as the fourth prime minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974. She was the first woman to become head of government in Israel.

Emilio Portes Gil

Emilio Portes Gil

Emilio Cándido Portes Gil was President of Mexico from 1928 to 1930, one of three to serve out the six-year term of President-elect General Álvaro Obregón, who had been assassinated in 1928. Since the Mexican Constitution of 1917 forbade re-election of a serving president, incumbent President Plutarco Elías Calles could not formally retain the presidency. Portes Gil replaced him, but Calles, the "Jefe Máximo", retained effective political power during what is known as the Maximato.

Houari Boumédiène

Houari Boumédiène

Houari Boumédiène was an Algerian politician and army colonel who served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death in 1978.

January 6

January 6

January 6 is the sixth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 359 days remain until the end of the year.

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

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Nobel Prize in Physics

Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901, the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Physics is traditionally the first award presented in the Nobel Prize ceremony.

Arno Allan Penzias

Arno Allan Penzias

Arno Allan Penzias is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics. Along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, he discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation, which helped establish the Big Bang theory of cosmology.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by the Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

Daniel Nathans

Daniel Nathans

Daniel Nathans was an American microbiologist. He shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application in restriction mapping.

Hamilton O. Smith

Hamilton O. Smith

Hamilton Othanel Smith is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.

Nobel Prize in Literature

Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, "in the field of literature, produced the most outstanding work in an idealistic direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. Literature is traditionally the final award presented at the Nobel Prize ceremony. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, most recently in 2018 as of May 2022.

Isaac Bashevis Singer

Isaac Bashevis Singer

Isaac Bashevis Singer was a Polish-born American Jewish writer who wrote and published first in Yiddish and later translated his own works into English with the help of editors and collaborators. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1978. A leading figure in the Yiddish literary movement, he was awarded two U.S. National Book Awards, one in Children's Literature for his memoir A Day of Pleasure: Stories of a Boy Growing Up in Warsaw (1970) and one in Fiction for his collection A Crown of Feathers and Other Stories (1974).

Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Anwar Sadat

Anwar Sadat

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat was an Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the third president of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as president in 1970. In 1978, Sadat and Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, signed a peace treaty in cooperation with United States President Jimmy Carter, for which they were recognized with the Nobel Peace Prize.

Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. He proclaimed a revolt, on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government, which was initially opposed by the Jewish Agency. Later, the Irgun fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, is an economics award administered by the Nobel Foundation.

Herbert A. Simon

Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon was an American political scientist, with a Ph.D. in political science, whose work also influenced the fields of computer science, economics, and cognitive psychology. His primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and he is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 and the Turing Award in computer science in 1975. His research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration, management, and political science. He was at Carnegie Mellon University for most of his career, from 1949 to 2001, where he helped found the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, one of the first such departments in the world.

Source: "1978", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1978.

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