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1971

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1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1971st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 971st year of the 2nd millennium, the 71st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1970s decade.

The year 1971 had three partial solar eclipses (February 25, July 22 and August 20) and two total lunar eclipses (February 10, and August 6).

The world population increased by 2.1% this year, the highest increase in history.[1]

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Roman numerals

Roman numerals

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers are written with combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, each letter with a fixed integer value, modern style uses only these seven:

Common year starting on Friday

Common year starting on Friday

A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year that begins on Friday, 1 January, and ends on Friday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is C. The most recent year of such kind was 2021 and the next one will be 2027 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2011, 2022 and 2033 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year is one of the three possible common years in which a century year can begin on, and occurs in century years that yield a remainder of 100 when divided by 400. The most recent such year was 1700 and the next one will be 2100.

Gregorian calendar

Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most parts of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a modification of, and replacement for, the Julian calendar. The principal change was to space leap years differently so as to make the average calendar year 365.2425 days long, more closely approximating the 365.2422-day 'tropical' or 'solar' year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun.

Common Era

Common Era

Common Era (CE) and Before the Common Era (BCE) are year notations for the Gregorian calendar, the world's most widely used calendar era. Common Era and Before the Common Era are alternatives to the original Anno Domini (AD) and Before Christ (BC) notations used for the same calendar era. The two notation systems are numerically equivalent: "2023 CE" and "AD 2023" each describe the current year; "400 BCE" and "400 BC" are the same year.

Anno Domini

Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means 'in the year of the Lord', but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to 'in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ'. The form "BC" is specific to English and equivalent abbreviations are used in other languages: the Latin form is Ante Christum natum but is rarely seen.

2nd millennium

2nd millennium

The second millennium of the Anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000.

20th century

20th century

The 20th (twentieth) century began on January 1, 1901 (MCMI), and ended on December 31, 2000 (MM). The 20th century was dominated by significant events that defined the modern era: sixth mass extinction, Spanish flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear weapons, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts, and technological advances. These reshaped the political and social structure of the globe.

1970s

1970s

The 1970s was a decade that began on January 1, 1970, and ended on December 31, 1979.

Solar eclipse of February 25, 1971

Solar eclipse of February 25, 1971

A partial solar eclipse occurred on February 25, 1971 with a magnitude of 0.7872. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth. In this partial solar eclipse, the moon covered 78.7% of the sun.

Solar eclipse of August 20, 1971

Solar eclipse of August 20, 1971

A partial solar eclipse occurred on August 20–21, 1971. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth. It was visible near sunrise on August 21 over parts of Australia.

February 1971 lunar eclipse

February 1971 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse took place at the Moon's descending node of the orbit on Wednesday, February 10, 1971, the first of two total lunar eclipses in 1971. It had an umbral magnitude of 1.30819. The moon passed through the center of the Earth's shadow. The Moon was plunged into darkness for 1 hour, 22 minutes and 11.4 seconds, in a deep total eclipse which saw the Moon 30.819% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may have been stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours, 44 minutes and 42.9 seconds and in total.

August 1971 lunar eclipse

August 1971 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse took place on Friday, August 6, 1971, the second of two total lunar eclipses in 1971. The moon passed through the center of the Earth's shadow.

Events

January

February

February 6: Earthquake in Tuscania, Italy.
February 6: Earthquake in Tuscania, Italy.
February 21: Tornadoes kill over 100 in the U.S. state of Mississippi.
February 21: Tornadoes kill over 100 in the U.S. state of Mississippi.

March

April

May

June

July

World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, 1971
World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, 1971

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

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January 1971

January 1971

The following events occurred in January 1971:

January 2

January 2

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 363 days remain until the end of the year.

1971 Ibrox disaster

1971 Ibrox disaster

The 1971 Ibrox disaster was a crush among the crowd at an Old Firm football game, which led to 66 deaths and more than 200 injuries. It happened on 2 January 1971 in an exit stairway at Ibrox Park in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the worst British football disaster until the Hillsborough disaster in Sheffield, England, in 1989.

January 5

January 5

January 5 is the fifth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 360 days remain until the end of the year.

Cricket

Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a 22-yard (20-metre) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at one of the wickets with the bat and then running between the wickets, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each batter. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side either catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground, or hitting a wicket with the ball before a batter can cross the crease in front of the wicket. When ten batters have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches. They communicate with two off-field scorers who record the match's statistical information.

January 8

January 8

January 8 is the eighth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 357 days remain until the end of the year.

January 12

January 12

January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 353 days remain until the end of the year.

All in the Family

All in the Family

All in the Family is an American television sitcom that aired on CBS for nine seasons, from January 12, 1971, to April 8, 1979. Afterwards, it was produced as the continuation series Archie Bunker's Place, which picked up where All in the Family had ended and ran for four more seasons through 1983.

Carroll O'Connor

Carroll O'Connor

John Carroll O'Connor was an American actor, producer, and director whose television career spanned over four decades. He became a lifelong member of the Actors Studio in 1971. O'Connor found widespread fame as Archie Bunker, the main character in the CBS television sitcoms All in the Family (1971–1979) and its continuation, Archie Bunker's Place (1979–1983). O'Connor later starred in the NBC/CBS television crime drama In the Heat of the Night (1988–1995), where he played the role of police chief William "Bill" Gillespie. At the end of his career in the late 1990s, he played Gus Stemple, the father of Jamie Buchman on Mad About You. In 1996, O'Connor was ranked number 38 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time. He won five Emmys and two Golden Globe Awards.

Archie Bunker

Archie Bunker

Archibald "Archie" Bunker is a fictional character from the 1970s American television sitcom All in the Family and its spin-off Archie Bunker's Place, played by Carroll O'Connor. Bunker, a main character of the series, is a World War II veteran, blue-collar worker, and family man. All in the Family premiered on January 12, 1971, where he was depicted as the head of the Bunker family. In 1979, the show was retooled and renamed Archie Bunker's Place; it finally went off the air in 1983. Bunker lived at the fictional address of 704 Hauser Street in the borough of Queens, in New York City.

CBS

CBS

CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network serving as the flagship property of the CBS Entertainment Group division of Paramount Global.

January 14

January 14

January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 351 days remain until the end of the year.

Births

Births
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December · Date unknown

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

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Jeremy Renner

Jeremy Renner

Jeremy Lee Renner is an American actor. He began his career by appearing in independent films such as Dahmer (2002) and Neo Ned (2005), then supporting roles in bigger films, such as S.W.A.T. (2003) and 28 Weeks Later (2007). Renner gained Academy Award nominations for Best Actor for his performance as a soldier in The Hurt Locker (2008) and for Best Supporting Actor for playing a hot-headed robber in The Town (2010).

January 1

January 1

January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is also known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year.

January 2

January 2

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 363 days remain until the end of the year.

January 3

January 3

January 3 is the third day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 362 days remain until the end of the year.

January 7

January 7

January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 358 days remain until the end of the year.

DJ Ötzi

DJ Ötzi

Gerhard "Gerry" Friedle, better known by his stage name DJ Ötzi, is an Austrian pop and Schlager singer. Successful mainly in German-speaking countries, he is best known in the English-speaking world for his 2000 single "Hey Baby ", a cover version of the Bruce Channel song "Hey! Baby". His stage name comes from Ötzi the Iceman, the name given to the 5,300-year-old frozen remains of a mummified man discovered in 1991 in South Tyrol's Ötztal Alps.

January 11

January 11

January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 354 days remain until the end of the year.

January 12

January 12

January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 353 days remain until the end of the year.

Arman Alizad

Arman Alizad

Arman Alizad is an Iranian-Finnish master tailor, fashion columnist and TV personality. He is best known for the martial arts series Kill Arman, which has aired in over 100 countries around the world. Alizad has also hosted several other Finnish TV series, such as Dresscode, Unisex, Loman Tarpeessa and Arman Reilaa.

January 14

January 14

January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 351 days remain until the end of the year.

Lasse Kjus

Lasse Kjus

Lasse Kjus is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Norway. He won the overall World Cup title twice, an Olympic gold medal, and several World Championships. His combined career total of 16 Olympic and World Championship medals ranks second all-time behind fellow Norwegian Kjetil André Aamodt.

January 15

January 15

January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 350 days remain until the end of the year.

Deaths

Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

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Coco Chanel

Coco Chanel

Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel was a French fashion designer and businesswoman. The founder and namesake of the Chanel brand, she was credited in the post–World War I era with popularizing a sporty, casual chic as the feminine standard of style. This replaced the "corseted silhouette" that was dominant beforehand with a style that was simpler, far less time consuming to put on and remove, more comfortable, and less expensive, all without sacrificing elegance. She is the only fashion designer listed on Time magazine's list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. A prolific fashion creator, Chanel extended her influence beyond couture clothing, realizing her aesthetic design in jewellery, handbags, and fragrance. Her signature scent, Chanel No. 5, has become an iconic product, and Chanel herself designed her famed interlocked-CC monogram, which has been in use since the 1920s.

Jacobo Árbenz

Jacobo Árbenz

Juan Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán was a Guatemalan military officer and politician who served as the 25th President of Guatemala. He was Minister of National Defense from 1944 to 1950, and the second democratically elected President of Guatemala, from 1951 to 1954. He was a major figure in the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution, which represented some of the few years of representative democracy in Guatemalan history. The landmark program of agrarian reform Árbenz enacted as president was very influential across Latin America.

January 5

January 5

January 5 is the fifth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 360 days remain until the end of the year.

Douglas Shearer

Douglas Shearer

Douglas Graham Shearer was a Canadian American pioneering sound designer and recording director who played a key role in the advancement of sound technology for motion pictures. The elder brother of actress Norma Shearer, he won seven Academy Awards for his work. In 2008, he was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame.

January 10

January 10

January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 355 days remain until the end of the year.

January 11

January 11

January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 354 days remain until the end of the year.

Hussein Al Oweini

Hussein Al Oweini

Hussein Al Oweini was a Lebanese businessman and politician who served as Prime Minister of Lebanon twice. He also held other cabinet positions.

January 12

January 12

January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 353 days remain until the end of the year.

January 14

January 14

January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 351 days remain until the end of the year.

Guillermo de Torre

Guillermo de Torre

Guillermo de Torre was a Spanish essayist, poet and literary critic, a Dadaist and member of the Generation of '27. He is also notable as the brother-in-law of the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.

January 15

January 15

January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 350 days remain until the end of the year.

John Dall

John Dall

John Dall was an American actor.

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

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Nobel Prize in Physics

Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901, the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Physics is traditionally the first award presented in the Nobel Prize ceremony.

Dennis Gabor

Dennis Gabor

Dennis Gabor was a Hungarian-British electrical engineer and physicist, most notable for inventing holography, for which he later received the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics. He obtained British citizenship in 1934, and spent most of his life in England.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by the Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals". Herzberg's main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals which are difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects. Herzberg served as Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from 1973 to 1980.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded yearly by the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute for outstanding discoveries in physiology or medicine. The Nobel Prize is not a single prize, but five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's 1895 will, are awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind". Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.

Nobel Prize in Literature

Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, "in the field of literature, produced the most outstanding work in an idealistic direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. Literature is traditionally the final award presented at the Nobel Prize ceremony. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, most recently in 2018 as of May 2022.

Pablo Neruda

Pablo Neruda

Pablo Neruda (born Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto; 12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician who won the 1971 Nobel Prize in Literature. Neruda became known as a poet when he was 13 years old, and wrote in a variety of styles, including surrealist poems, historical epics, overtly political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and passionate love poems such as the ones in his collection Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair (1924).

Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt was a German politician and statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as the chancellor of West Germany from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in western Europe through the EEC and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe. He was the first Social Democrat chancellor since 1930.

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, is an economics award administered by the Nobel Foundation.

Simon Kuznets

Simon Kuznets

Simon Smith Kuznets was an American economist and statistician who received the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development."

Source: "1971", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971.

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Further Reading

References
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  2. ^ Wamsley, Laurel (February 15, 2021). "U.K. And Ireland Celebrate 50 Years Since 'Decimal Day'". NPR. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  3. ^ "One Man's Mistake Triggers U.S. Alert; Many Stations Go Off Air", Los Angeles Times, February 21, 1971, p1
  4. ^ Fulghum, David; Maitland, Terrence (1984). The Vietnam Experience South Vietnam on Trial: Mid-1970–1972. Boston Publishing Company. p. 61. ISBN 0939526107.
  5. ^ "Declaration of Independence". Banglapedia. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
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  8. ^ John Guest; Raymond Richard Skelhorn (1973). Mount Etna and the 1971 Eruption. Royal Society. p. 177.
  9. ^ International Relations of Bangladesh and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman: 1971-1973. Parama. 1999. ISBN 9789848245316.
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  11. ^ Background Notes, Sierra Leone. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of Public Communication. 1992. p. 5.
  12. ^ "Soviet Sends Another Space Vehicle Into Orbit", The New York Times, April 19, 1971, p4
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