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1315

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An illuminated picture of the Great Famine of 1315–1317
An illuminated picture of the Great Famine of 1315–1317

Year 1315 (MCCCXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Events

By place

Europe

  • Spring – Great Famine of 1315–1317: A famine and pestilence sweeps over Europe, and exacts so frightful a toll of human life that the phenomenon is to be regarded as one of the most impressive features of the period. It covers almost the whole of Northern Europe; the current territory of Ireland, England, France, Netherlands, Germany and Poland. The adverse weather conditions, the ensuing crop failures, and the sharp rise in food prices cause an acute shortage of food that will last for two years. The famine causes millions of deaths (according to estimates, around 10 to 25% of the urban population dies).[1]
  • August 19 – King Louis X (the Quarrelsome) marries the 22-year-old Clementia of Hungary (or Clemence), daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou (titular king of Hungary). He and his second wife are five days later crowned at Reims. Louis becomes the 12th Capetian ruler of France. After his coronation, he passes the throne of Navarre to his younger brother, Philip II (the Tall).[2]
  • August – Louis X (the Quarrelsome) issues a charter in which he allows the Jews to come back to France. They are allowed to stay in the country only for 12 years, and are forced to wear armbands at all times; Jews can only live in designated communities and are forbidden from usury. Through this, the Jewish community depends upon the king for their right to protection.[3]
  • August – Louis X (the Quarrelsome) mobilizes an army along the Flemish border. He prohibits the export of grain and other goods to Flanders – which proves challenging to enforce. Louis pressures officers of the Church at the borderlands, as well as King Edward II, to support his effort to prevent Spanish merchant vessels from trading with the embargoed Flemish cities.[4]
  • August 29Battle of Montecatini: The Pisan army (some 20,000 men) led by Uguccione della Faggiuola defeats the allied forces of Florence and Naples. During the battle, Philip I manages to escape, but his son Charles of Taranto and his brother Peter Tempesta are killed.[5]
  • November 15Battle of Morgarten: The Swiss defeat Leopold of Austria on the shore of the Ägerisee, ensuring independence for the Swiss Confederation.[6]
  • December – Sultan Ismail I orders the Jews of Granada to wear the yellow badge in public.[7]

England

Asia

By topic

Cities and Towns

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Great Famine of 1315–1317

Great Famine of 1315–1317

The Great Famine of 1315–1317 was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century. Most of Europe was affected. The famine caused many deaths over an extended number of years and marked a clear end to the period of growth and prosperity from the 11th to the 13th centuries.

Famine

Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, natural disasters, crop failure, population imbalance, widespread poverty, an economic catastrophe or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, generally characterized Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe, in terms of having suffered most number of deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 2000s. Since 2010, Africa has been the most affected continent of famine in the world.

Europe

Europe

Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Europe is also considered a subcontinent of Eurasia and it is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Comprising the westernmost peninsulas of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Africa and Asia. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and Asia to the east. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.

Ireland

Ireland

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest in the world.

Kingdom of England

Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from about 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

France in the Middle Ages

France in the Middle Ages

The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities, and the creation and extension of administrative/state control in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis against the House of Plantagenet and their Angevin Empire, cumulating in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.

Kingdom of Germany

Kingdom of Germany

The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom was the mostly Germanic-speaking East Frankish kingdom, which was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, especially after the kingship passed from Frankish kings to the Saxon Ottonian dynasty in 919. The king was elected, initially by the rulers of the stem duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire, which also included the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1032, the Kingdom of Burgundy.

August 19

August 19

August 19 is the 231st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 134 days remain until the end of the year.

Clementia of Hungary

Clementia of Hungary

Clementia of Hungary was Queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louis X.

Charles Martel of Anjou

Charles Martel of Anjou

Charles Martel of the Capetian dynasty was the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples and Mary of Hungary, the daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary. The 18-year-old Charles Martel was set up by Pope Nicholas IV and the ecclesiastical party as the titular King of Hungary (1290–1295) as the successor of his maternal uncle, the childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary against whom the Pope had already earlier declared a crusade.

Kingdom of Hungary (1301–1526)

Kingdom of Hungary (1301–1526)

In the Late Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Hungary, a country in Central Europe, experienced a period of interregnum in the early 14th century. Royal power was restored under Charles I (1308–1342), a scion of the Capetian House of Anjou. Gold and silver mines opened in his reign produced about one third of the world's total production up until the 1490s. The kingdom reached the peak of its power under Louis the Great (1342–1382) who led military campaigns against Lithuania, southern Italy and other faraway territories.

County of Flanders

County of Flanders

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

Births

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February 22

February 22

February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 312 days remain until the end of the year.

Chunghye of Goryeo

Chunghye of Goryeo

Chunghye of Goryeo, born Wang Jeong, was the 28th king of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

April 5

April 5

April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 270 days remain until the end of the year.

James III of Majorca

James III of Majorca

James III, known as James the Rash, was King of Majorca from 1324 to 1344. He was the son of Ferdinand of Majorca and Isabella of Sabran.

April 14

April 14

April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 261 days remain until the end of the year.

Emirate of Granada

Emirate of Granada

The Emirate of Granada, also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, was an Islamic realm in southern Iberia during the Late Middle Ages. It was the last independent Muslim state in Western Europe.

Bonne of Luxembourg

Bonne of Luxembourg

Bonne of Luxemburg or Jutta of Luxemburg, was born Jutta (Judith), the second daughter of King John of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France; however, as she died a year prior to his accession, she was never a French queen. Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg, since she was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre.

France in the Middle Ages

France in the Middle Ages

The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities, and the creation and extension of administrative/state control in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis against the House of Plantagenet and their Angevin Empire, cumulating in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.

Albert IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg

Albert IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg

Albert IV of Saxe-Lauenburg was the eldest son of John II of Saxe-Lauenburg and Elisabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg, sister of Gerard III the Great. In 1321 Albert IV succeeded his father as Duke of Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln, a branch duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, while his mother served as regent, before she remarried Eric Christoffersen (*1307–1331*), a son of King Christopher II and co-ruler in Denmark.

House of Ascania

House of Ascania

The House of Ascania was a dynasty of German rulers. It is also known as the House of Anhalt, which refers to its longest-held possession, Anhalt.

Federico di Pagana

Federico di Pagana

Little is known of Federico di Pagana, he came from the region of Rapallo on the Genoese Riviera, so it is unclear why he was chosen as doge after Nicolò Guarco was forced out of office on 7 April 1383. But the well-introduced and astute politician Leonardo Montaldo managed to have the election canceled and to be picked instead as the new doge. After this episode, Federico di Pagana disappears from the forefront of Genoese politics.

Doge

Doge

A doge was an elected lord and head of state in several Italian city-states, notably Venice and Genoa, during the medieval and renaissance periods. Such states are referred to as "crowned republics".

Deaths

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January 15

January 15

January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 350 days remain until the end of the year.

Goryeo

Goryeo

Goryeo was a Korean state founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unification" by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but also incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also romanized as Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo. According to Korean historians, it was during the Goryeo period that the individual identities of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla were successfully merged into a single entity that became the basis of the modern-day Korean identity. Goryeo was the successor state to Later Goguryeo and Goguryeo.

March 10

March 10

March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 296 days remain until the end of the year.

Agnes Blannbekin

Agnes Blannbekin

Agnes Blannbekin was an Austrian Beguine and Christian mystic. She was also referred to as Saint Agnes Blannbekin or the Venerable Agnes Blannbekin, though never beatified or canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Her revelations were compiled by an anonymous confessor before being transcribed by the monk Ermenrich and later published in 1731 as Venerabilis Agnetis Blannbekin. The copies were confiscated by the Society of Jesus, and only two manuscripts survived. One was destroyed in a fire at the Strasbourg library in 1870. The surviving manuscript, currently owned by a Cistercian convent in Zwettl, Austria, was not released until the 20th century. Although Blannbekin is best remembered today for her visions, during her life she was known for her ministry to the urban population and her strange and provocative expressions of faith.

April 30

April 30

April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 245 days remain until the end of the year.

Enguerrand de Marigny

Enguerrand de Marigny

Enguerrand de Marigny, Baron Le Portier was a French chamberlain and minister of Philip IV.

Grand Chamberlain of France

Grand Chamberlain of France

The Grand Chamberlain of France was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, a member of the Maison du Roi, and one of the Great Offices of the Maison du Roi during the Ancien Régime. It is similar in name, but should not be confused with, the office of Grand Chamberman of France, although both positions could accurately be translated by the word chamberlain.

Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France

Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France

Margaret of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre as the first wife of King Louis X, although locked in prison during her whole French queenship.

May 1

May 1

May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 244 days remain until the end of the year.

Margaret of Brandenburg

Margaret of Brandenburg

Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel was a German noblewoman member of the House of Ascania and by her two marriages Duchess of Greater Poland, Queen of Poland and Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg.

Hugh V, Duke of Burgundy

Hugh V, Duke of Burgundy

Hugh V was Duke of Burgundy between 1306 and 1315.

House of Burgundy

House of Burgundy

The House of Burgundy was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, descending from Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, a younger son of King Robert II of France. The House ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1032–1361 and achieved the recognized title of King of Portugal.

Source: "1315", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1315.

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References
  1. ^ Jordan, W. C. (1996). The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the early Fourteenth Century, pp. 169–170. Princeton University Press.
  2. ^ Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. 2017. p. 568. ISBN 9781351665667.
  3. ^ Chazan, Robert (1979). Church, State, and Jews in the Middle Ages, pp. 79–80. Behrman House.
  4. ^ Jordan, William Chester (2005). Unceasing Strife, Unending Fear: Jacques de Therines and the Freedom of the Church in the Age of the Last Capetians, pp. 151–152. Princeton University Press.
  5. ^ Kelly, Samantha (2003). The New Solomon: Robert of Naples (1309–1343) and Fourteenth Century Kingship, p. 228. Brill.
  6. ^ McCrackan, William Denison (1901). The rise of the Swiss republic: a history. H. Holt.
  7. ^ Ulysse R. (1891). Les Signes d'Infamie. Translated by Adler C. and Jacobs J. in the Jewish Encyclopedia: The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia.
  8. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2002). Osprey: Bannockburn 1314 – Robert Bruce's great victory, p. 86. ISBN 1-85532-609-4.
  9. ^ McNamee, Colin (2010). Rogers, Clifford J. (ed.). The Oxford encyclopedia of medieval warfare and military technology, volume 1, pp. 127–128. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195334036.
  10. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2002). Osprey: Bannockburn 1314 – Robert Bruce's great victory, p. 83. ISBN 1-85532-609-4.
  11. ^ Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1978). A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century, p. 127. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-40026-6.
  12. ^ Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G. (ed.). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, p. 471. Vol III (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 978-1449966386.
  13. ^ Wilson, Katharina M.; Wilson, M. (1991). An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. Taylor & Francis. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8240-8547-6.

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