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1309

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
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King James II (the Just) (1267–1327)
King James II (the Just) (1267–1327)

Year 1309 (MCCCIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Religion

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Emirate of Granada

Emirate of Granada

The Emirate of Granada, also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, was an Islamic realm in southern Iberia during the Late Middle Ages. It was the last independent Muslim state in Western Europe.

Almuñécar

Almuñécar

Almuñécar is a Spanish city and municipality located in the southwestern part of the comarca of the Costa Granadina, in the province of Granada. It is located on the shores of the Mediterranean sea and borders the Granadin municipalities of Otívar, Jete, Ítrabo and Salobreña, and with the Malagueño municipality of Nerja. The Verde river runs through its term. The municipality of sexitano includes the population centers of Almuñécar —municipal capital—, La Herradura, Velilla-Taramay, Torrecuevas, Río Seco, El Rescate and El Cerval.

Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim

Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Ḥakīm al-Lakhmī al-Rundī was a scholar from Ronda who became a leading official of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada. He was born to the Banu al-Hakim family, a branch of the Abbadid dynasty. While his brothers ruled his home town, he went east to study in major cities of the Islamic world in 1284, returning two years later. In 1287, he entered service in the court chancery of Sultan Muhammad II as katib (secretary). In addition to secretarial and literary work, he also served as mediator to reconcile his brothers with the sultan when they rebelled. He became a co-vizier on the accession of Muhammad III, and became sole vizier and titled dhu al-wizaratayn when his co-vizier died in 1303. His power grew and at the end of his life he was the actual ruler of the emirate. He orchestrated a foreign policy change, first by making peace with Castile, and then taking Ceuta in North Africa from the Marinids. These actions backfired and soon Granada was confronted with a triple alliance of Castile, Aragon, and the Marinids. The citizens of Granada, angered by his policy and his extravagant lifestyle, invaded his palace and that of the sultan on 14 March 1309. The sultan was deposed, and Abu Abdallah was killed by his political rival Atiq ibn al-Mawl.

Fez, Morocco

Fez, Morocco

Fez or Fes is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region. It is the second largest city in Morocco, with a population of 1.11 million according to the 2014 census. Located to the north west of the Atlas Mountains, Fez is linked to several important cities of different regions; it is 206 km (128 mi) from Tangier to the northwest, 246 km (153 mi) from Casablanca, 189 km (117 mi) from Rabat to the west, and 387 km (240 mi) from Marrakesh to the southwest. It is surrounded by hills and the old city is centered around the Fez River flowing from west to east.

James II of Aragon

James II of Aragon

James II, called the Just, was the King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. He was also the King of Sicily from 1285 to 1295 and the King of Majorca from 1291 to 1298. From 1297 he was nominally the King of Sardinia and Corsica, but he only acquired the island of Sardinia by conquest in 1324. His full title for the last three decades of his reign was "James, by the grace of God, king of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica, and count of Barcelona".

Ferdinand IV of Castile

Ferdinand IV of Castile

Ferdinand IV of Castile called the Summoned, was King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.

Bull of the Crusade

Bull of the Crusade

A Bull of the Crusade was a papal bull that granted indulgences to those who took part in the crusades against Muslims, pagans or sometimes heretics. These indulgences were similar to those that, as far back as the 11th century, had been granted to the faithful of the Spanish Mark who took part in building churches and monasteries, or who gave alms to be devoted to this purpose.

Kingdom of Aragon

Kingdom of Aragon

The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, which also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon.

Kingdom of Castile

Kingdom of Castile

The Kingdom of Castile was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region. It began in the 9th century as the County of Castile, an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century, its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157, it was again united with León, and after 1230, this union became permanent. Throughout this period, the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities. The Kingdoms of Castile and of León, with their southern acquisitions, came to be known collectively as the Crown of Castile, a term that also came to encompass overseas expansion.

Abu al-Rabi Sulayman

Abu al-Rabi Sulayman

Abu ar-Rabi Sulayman was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. Son or grandson of Abu Yaqub Yusuf and brother of Abu Thabit Amir, whom he succeeded in 1308, at the age of 19.

Ceuta

Ceuta

Ceuta is a Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa.

July 20

July 20

July 20 is the 201st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 164 days remain until the end of the year.

Births

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March 25

March 25

March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 281 days remain until the end of the year.

Nobility

Nobility

Nobility is a social class found in many societies that have an aristocracy. It is normally ranked immediately below royalty. Nobility has often been an estate of the realm with many exclusive functions and characteristics. The characteristics associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles or simply formal functions, and vary by country and by era. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is typically hereditary and patrilineal.

June 9

June 9

June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 205 days remain until the end of the year.

Count palatine

Count palatine

A count palatine, also count of the palace or palsgrave, was originally an official attached to a royal or imperial palace or household and later a nobleman of a rank above that of an ordinary count. The title originated in the late Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages especially and into modern times, it is associated with the Holy Roman Empire.

December 6

December 6

December 6 is the 340th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 25 days remain until the end of the year.

Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford

Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford

Humphrey (VIII) de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford, 5th Earl of Essex of Pleshy Castle in Essex, was hereditary Constable of England. He distinguished himself as a captain in the Breton campaigns of the Hundred Years' War, playing a part in winning the Battle of Morlaix (1342) and the Battle of La Roche-Derrien (1347).

Aldona of Lithuania

Aldona of Lithuania

Aldona was Queen consort of Poland (1333–1339), and a princess of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. She was the daughter of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Kingdom of Poland

Kingdom of Poland

The Kingdom of Poland was a state in Central Europe, may refer to:

Conrad of Megenberg

Conrad of Megenberg

Conrad of Megenberg was a German Catholic scholar, and a writer.

David III Strathbogie

David III Strathbogie

David of Strathbogie was a 14th-century Anglo-Scottish noble. He was born the son and heir of Sir David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl, Constable of Scotland and Chief Warden of Northumberland, by his spouse Joan, elder daughter of Sir John Comyn of Badenoch, Joint Guardian of Scotland.

Magnate

Magnate

A magnate, from the late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Ages, the term is often used to distinguish higher territorial landowners and warlords, such as counts, earls, dukes, and territorial-princes from the baronage, and in Poland for the richest szlachta.

Firuz Shah Tughlaq

Firuz Shah Tughlaq

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq was a Muslim ruler from the Tughlaq dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh, where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. For the first time in the history of Delhi Sultanate, a situation was confronted wherein nobody was ready to accept the reins of power. With much difficulty, the camp followers convinced Firoz to accept the responsibility. In fact, Khwaja Jahan, the Wazir of Muhammad bin Tughlaq had placed a small boy on throne claiming him to the son of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, who meekly surrendered afterwards. Due to widespread unrest, his realm was much smaller than Muhammad's. Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. He established Sharia across his realm.

Deaths

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January 4

January 4

January 4 is the fourth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 361 days remain until the end of the year.

Angela of Foligno

Angela of Foligno

Angela of Foligno was an Italian Franciscan tertiary who became known as a mystic from her extensive writings about her mystical revelations. Due to the respect those writings engendered in the Catholic Church she became known as "Mistress of Theologians".

February 9

February 9

February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 325 days remain until the end of the year.

March 7

March 7

March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 299 days remain until the end of the year.

Lovato Lovati

Lovato Lovati

Lovato Lovati (1241–1309) was an Italian scholar, poet, notary, judge and humanist from the High Middle Ages and early Italian Renaissance. Arguable among historians, Lovati is considered the "father of Humanism." His literary Padua circle included Rolando de Piazzola, Geremia da Montagnone, and Albertino Mussato. Lovati's scholarship marked characteristics which would later define the development of humanism: an appetite for classical texts; a philological concern to correct them, and ascertain their meaning; and a desire to imitate them. Scholars such as Petrarch commented on his works favorably. Lovati's achievements which survive today are his Latin verse epistles, and his short commentary of Seneca's tragedies.

March 14

March 14

March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 292 days remain until the end of the year.

Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim

Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Ḥakīm al-Lakhmī al-Rundī was a scholar from Ronda who became a leading official of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada. He was born to the Banu al-Hakim family, a branch of the Abbadid dynasty. While his brothers ruled his home town, he went east to study in major cities of the Islamic world in 1284, returning two years later. In 1287, he entered service in the court chancery of Sultan Muhammad II as katib (secretary). In addition to secretarial and literary work, he also served as mediator to reconcile his brothers with the sultan when they rebelled. He became a co-vizier on the accession of Muhammad III, and became sole vizier and titled dhu al-wizaratayn when his co-vizier died in 1303. His power grew and at the end of his life he was the actual ruler of the emirate. He orchestrated a foreign policy change, first by making peace with Castile, and then taking Ceuta in North Africa from the Marinids. These actions backfired and soon Granada was confronted with a triple alliance of Castile, Aragon, and the Marinids. The citizens of Granada, angered by his policy and his extravagant lifestyle, invaded his palace and that of the sultan on 14 March 1309. The sultan was deposed, and Abu Abdallah was killed by his political rival Atiq ibn al-Mawl.

April 10

April 10

April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 265 days remain until the end of the year.

Elisabeth von Rapperswil

Elisabeth von Rapperswil

Elisabeth von Rapperswil was the last countess of the House of Rapperswil, and secured by her second marriage the female line of the Counts of Rapperswil and the extensive possessions of Rapperswil in the former Zürichgau to the Laufenburg line. Her son by first marriage was Reichsvogt Wernher von Homberg, and her oldest son by second marriage was Count Johann von Habsburg-Laufenburg who passed over the title of the count of Rapperswil to his oldest son Johann II and his brothers Rudolf and Gotfried.

May 5

May 5

May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 240 days remain until the end of the year.

Charles II of Naples

Charles II of Naples

Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame, was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285. He was the son of Charles I of Anjou—one of the most powerful European monarchs in the second half of the 13th century—and Beatrice of Provence. His father granted Charles the Principality of Salerno in the Kingdom of Sicily in 1272 and made him regent in Provence and Forcalquier in 1279.

Charles I of Anjou

Charles I of Anjou

Charles I, commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou. He was Count of Provence (1246–85) and Forcalquier in the Holy Roman Empire, Count of Anjou and Maine (1246–85) in France; he was also King of Sicily (1266–85) and Prince of Achaea (1278–85). In 1272, he was proclaimed King of Albania, and in 1277 he purchased a claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Source: "1309", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1309.

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References
  1. ^ Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 170. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
  2. ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 123. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  3. ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 127. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  4. ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, pp. 128–130. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  5. ^ Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 175. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
  6. ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, pp. 131–132. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  7. ^ Failler, Albert (1992). "L'occupation de Rhodes par les Hospitaliers", pp. 128–132. Revue des études byzantines (in French).
  8. ^ Jackson, William G. F. (1986). The Rock of the Gibraltarians, p. 41. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press. ISBN 0-8386-3237-8.
  9. ^ Adrian Hastings, Alistair Mason and Hugh S. Pyper (2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought, p. 227. Oxford University Press.
  10. ^ "Book of Nature". World Digital Library. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.

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