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- March 14 – Sultan Muhammad III is deposed during a palace coup after a 7-year reign and is replaced by his half-brother Abu al-Juyush Nasr as ruler of the Emirate of Granada. Muhammad III is spared and allowed to live in Almuñécar, but his vizier, Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim, is killed. After his descent to the throne, Nasr sends envoys to the Marinid court at Fez in April.
- April – Kings James II (the Just) and his ally Ferdinand IV (the Summoned) ask Pope Clement V, without mentioning their collaboration with the Marinids, to grant a crusading bull and financial support from the church. In response, Aragon and Castile plan to blockade the Strait of Gibraltar with their fleets (some 40 galleys), and to expel the Saracen forces from Spain.
- May 12 – Sultan Abu al-Rabi Sulayman launches an attack on Ceuta. He concludes an alliance with James II (the Just), and concedes commercial benefits to Castilian merchants. Abu al-Rabi also sends 1,000 measures of wheat to Aragon. A few months later, Marinid forces, without Castilian support, occupy Ceuta on July 20. Expelling Saracen forces from Morocco.
- July – Siege of Algeciras: Castilian forces led by Ferdinand IV (the Summoned) begin the siege of Algeciras. King Denis I (the Poet King) sends a contingent of 700 knights to support the siege. He provides Ferdinand in accordance with his friendship a loan of 16,600 silver marks. In October, about 500 knights led by John of Castile desert the Castilian encampment.
- August 11 – Siege of Almería: Aragonese forces (some 12,000 men) under James II (the Just) land on the coast of Almería and begin blockading the city with his fleet. His forces include siege engines such as mangonels and trebuchets. James orders multiple unsuccessful assaults on the city and is forced (due to a shortage of supplies) to make a truce in December.
- August 15 – Conquest of Rhodes: The Byzantine garrison of the city of Rhodes surrenders to the Crusader forces of the Knights Hospitaller under Grand Master Foulques de Villaret – completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights establish their headquarters on the island and rename themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.
- September 12 – Siege of Gibraltar: Castilian forces under Juan Núñez II de Lara and Alonso Pérez de Guzmán besiege and conquer the Saracen fortress at Gibraltar – which is held for nearly 600 years (see 711). During the siege, the port is blockaded. Ferdinand IV (the Summoned) orders to repair the damaged city walls.
Cities and Towns
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Source: "1309", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1309.
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- ^ Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 170. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
- ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 123. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
- ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 127. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
- ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, pp. 128–130. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
- ^ Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 175. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
- ^ Joseph F. Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, pp. 131–132. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
- ^ Failler, Albert (1992). "L'occupation de Rhodes par les Hospitaliers", pp. 128–132. Revue des études byzantines (in French).
- ^ Jackson, William G. F. (1986). The Rock of the Gibraltarians, p. 41. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press. ISBN 0-8386-3237-8.
- ^ Adrian Hastings, Alistair Mason and Hugh S. Pyper (2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought, p. 227. Oxford University Press.
- ^ "Book of Nature". World Digital Library. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
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