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10th United States Congress

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10th United States Congress
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March 4, 1807 – March 4, 1809
Members34 senators
142 representatives
3 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityDemocratic-Republican
Senate PresidentGeorge Clinton (DR)
House majorityDemocratic-Republican
House SpeakerJoseph Bradley Varnum (DR)
Sessions
1st: October 26, 1807 – April 25, 1808
2nd: November 7, 1808 – March 3, 1809

The 10th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1807, to March 4, 1809, during the seventh and eighth years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1800 census; both chambers had an overwhelming Democratic-Republican majority.

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United States Congress

United States Congress

The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is bicameral, composed of a lower body, the House of Representatives, and an upper body, the Senate. It meets in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a governor's appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators and 435 representatives. The U.S. vice president has a vote in the Senate only when senators are evenly divided. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members.

United States Senate

United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the House of Representatives being the lower chamber. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States.

United States House of Representatives

United States House of Representatives

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, with the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they comprise the national bicameral legislature of the United States.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia, also known as Washington, the District, or D.C., is the capital city and federal district of the United States. It is located on the east bank of the Potomac River, which forms its southwestern border with Virginia, and it shares a land border with Maryland on its other sides. The city was named for George Washington, a Founding Father, commanding general of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, and the first president of the United States, and the district is named after Columbia, the female personification of the nation. Washington is the southern point of the Northeast megalopolis, a major cultural, political, and economic corridor along the northeastern coast of the United States running from Boston to Washington, D.C.. As the seat of the U.S. federal government and several international organizations, the city is an important world political capital. It is one of the most visited cities in the U.S., with over 20 million annual visitors as of 2016.

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, slaver, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He was previously the nation's second vice president under John Adams and the first United States secretary of state under George Washington. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation. He produced formative documents and decisions at state, national, and international levels.

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson served as the third president of the United States from March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1809. Jefferson assumed the office after defeating incumbent John Adams in the 1800 presidential election. The election was a political realignment in which the Democratic-Republican Party swept the Federalist Party out of power, ushering in a generation of Jeffersonian Republican dominance in American politics. After serving two terms, Jefferson was succeeded by Secretary of State James Madison, also of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Apportionment (politics)

Apportionment (politics)

Apportionment is the process by which seats in a legislative body are distributed among administrative divisions, such as states or parties, entitled to representation. This page presents the general principles and issues related to apportionment. The page Apportionment by country describes specific practices used around the world. The page Mathematics of apportionment describes mathematical formulations and properties of apportionment rules.

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-Republican Party

The Democratic-Republican Party, known at the time as the Republican Party and also referred to as the Jeffersonian Republican Party among other names, was an American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, agrarianism, political equality, and expansionism. The party became increasingly dominant after the 1800 elections as the opposing Federalist Party collapsed. The Democratic-Republicans splintered during the 1824 presidential election. The majority faction of the Democratic-Republicans eventually coalesced into the modern Democratic Party, while the minority faction ultimately formed the core of what became the Whig Party.

Major events

President of the Senate George Clinton
President of the Senate George Clinton
President pro temporeStephen R. Bradley
President pro tempore
Stephen R. Bradley
Speaker of the HouseJoseph B. Varnum
Speaker of the House
Joseph B. Varnum

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1807 in the United States

1807 in the United States

Events from the year 1807 in the United States.

1808 in the United States

1808 in the United States

Events from the year 1808 in the United States.

1809 in the United States

1809 in the United States

Events from the year 1809 in the United States.

Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the third vice president of the United States from 1801 to 1805. Burr's legacy is defined by his famous personal conflict with Alexander Hamilton that culminated in Burr killing Hamilton in a duel in 1804, while Burr was vice president.

HMS Leopard (1790)

HMS Leopard (1790)

HMS Leopard was a 50-gun Portland-class fourth rate of the Royal Navy. She served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and was notable for the actions of her captain in 1807, which were emblematic of the tensions that later erupted in the War of 1812 between Britain and America. She was wrecked in 1814.

Robert Fulton

Robert Fulton

Robert Fulton was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the world's first commercially successful steamboat, the North River Steamboat. In 1807, that steamboat traveled on the Hudson River with passengers from New York City to Albany and back again, a round trip of 300 nautical miles, in 62 hours. The success of his steamboat changed river traffic and trade on major American rivers.

Steamboat

Steamboat

A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. Steamboats sometimes use the prefix designation SS, S.S. or S/S or PS ; however, these designations are most often used for steamships.

New York City

New York City

New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States, and is more than twice as populous as second-place Los Angeles. New York City lies at the southern tip of New York State, and constitutes the geographical and demographic center of both the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the United States both by population and by urban landmass. With over 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its combined statistical area as of 2020, New York is one of the world's most populous megacities, and over 58 million people live within 250 mi (400 km) of the city. New York City is a global cultural, financial, entertainment, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care and life sciences, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, an established safe haven for global investors, and is sometimes described as the capital of the world.

Albany, New York

Albany, New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York, also the seat and largest city of Albany County. Albany is on the west bank of the Hudson River, about 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and about 135 miles (220 km) north of New York City.

Hudson River

Hudson River

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the New York Harbor between New York City and Jersey City, eventually draining into the Atlantic Ocean at Lower New York Bay. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Farther north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Even as far north as the city of Troy, the flow of the river changes direction with the tides.

George Clinton (vice president)

George Clinton (vice president)

George Clinton was an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A prominent Democratic-Republican, Clinton served as the fourth vice president of the United States from 1805 until his death in 1812. He also served as the first governor of New York from 1777 to 1795 and again from 1801 to 1804. Along with John C. Calhoun, he is one of two vice presidents to hold office under two consecutive presidents.

Joseph Bradley Varnum

Joseph Bradley Varnum

Joseph Bradley Varnum was an American politician from Massachusetts. He served as a U.S. representative and United States senator, and held leadership positions in both bodies. He was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Major legislation

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Embargo Act of 1807

Embargo Act of 1807

The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general trade embargo on all foreign nations that was enacted by the United States Congress. As a successor or replacement law for the 1806 Non-importation Act and passed as the Napoleonic Wars continued, it represented an escalation of attempts to persuade Britain to stop any impressment of American sailors and to respect American sovereignty and neutrality but also attempted to pressure France and other nations in the pursuit of general diplomatic and economic leverage.

United States Statutes at Large

United States Statutes at Large

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

Non-Intercourse Act (1809)

Non-Intercourse Act (1809)

In the last sixteen days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency, the Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. Its intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the United States. The Non-Intercourse Act was followed by Macon's Bill Number 2. Despite hurting the economy as a whole, the bill did help America begin to industrialize, as no British manufactured goods could be imported, so these goods instead had to be produced domestically.

Territories organized

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 27 7 34 0
Begin 28 6 34 0
End
Final voting share 82.4% 17.6%
Beginning of next congress 26 7 33 1

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 113 28 141 1
Begin 115 25 140 2
End 27 1420
Final voting share 81.0% 19.0%
Beginning of next congress 95 47 142 0

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

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George Clinton (vice president)

George Clinton (vice president)

George Clinton was an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A prominent Democratic-Republican, Clinton served as the fourth vice president of the United States from 1805 until his death in 1812. He also served as the first governor of New York from 1777 to 1795 and again from 1801 to 1804. Along with John C. Calhoun, he is one of two vice presidents to hold office under two consecutive presidents.

President pro tempore of the United States Senate

President pro tempore of the United States Senate

The president pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate, after the vice president. According to Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution, the vice president of the United States is the president of the Senate, and the Senate must choose a president pro tempore to act in the vice president's absence.

Samuel Smith (Maryland politician)

Samuel Smith (Maryland politician)

Samuel Smith was an American Senator and Representative from Maryland, a mayor of Baltimore, Maryland, and a general in the Maryland militia. He was the brother of cabinet secretary Robert Smith.

Stephen R. Bradley

Stephen R. Bradley

Stephen Row Bradley was an American lawyer, judge and politician. He served as a United States Senator from the state of Vermont and as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate during the early 1800s.

John Milledge

John Milledge

John Milledge was an American politician. He fought in the American Revolution and later served as United States Representative, 26th Governor of Georgia, and United States Senator. Milledge was a founder of Athens, Georgia, and the University of Georgia. From January to May 1809, Milledge served briefly as President pro tempore of the United States Senate.

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

The speaker of the United States House of Representatives, commonly known as the speaker of the House, is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution. The speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House and is simultaneously its presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head. Speakers also perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the speaker usually does not personally preside over debates—that duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party—nor regularly participate in floor debates.

Joseph Bradley Varnum

Joseph Bradley Varnum

Joseph Bradley Varnum was an American politician from Massachusetts. He served as a U.S. representative and United States senator, and held leadership positions in both bodies. He was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

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Classes of United States senators

Classes of United States senators

The 100 seats in the United States Senate are divided into three classes for the purpose of determining which seats will be up for election in any two-year cycle, with only one class being up for election at a time. With senators being elected to fixed terms of six years, the classes allow about a third of the seats to be up for election in any presidential or midterm election year instead of having all 100 be up for election at the same time every six years. The seats are also divided in such a way that any given state's two senators are in different classes so that each seat's term ends in different years. Class 1 and 2 consist of 33 seats each, while class 3 consists of 34 seats. Elections for class 1 seats took place most recently in 2018, class 2 in 2020, and the elections for class 3 seats in 2022.

List of United States senators from Connecticut

List of United States senators from Connecticut

This is a chronological listing of the United States senators from Connecticut.

James Hillhouse

James Hillhouse

James Hillhouse was an American lawyer, real estate developer, and politician from New Haven, Connecticut. He represented the state in both chambers of the US Congress. From February to March 1801, Hillhouse briefly served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate.

Chauncey Goodrich

Chauncey Goodrich

Chauncey Goodrich was an American lawyer and politician from Connecticut who represented that state in the United States Congress as both a senator and a representative.

List of United States senators from Delaware

List of United States senators from Delaware

Below is a chronological listing of the United States senators from Delaware. U.S. senators were originally elected by the Delaware General Assembly for designated six-year terms beginning March 4. Frequently portions of the term would remain only upon a U.S. senator's death or resignation. From 1914 and the enforcement of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted in 1913 but rejected by the General Assembly that year and not ratified until July 1, 2010, officeholders were popularly elected on the first Tuesday after November 1; starting 1935, the beginning of their term is January 3. Delaware's current U.S. senators are Democrats Tom Carper and Chris Coons.

List of United States senators from Georgia

List of United States senators from Georgia

Georgia was admitted to the Union on January 2, 1788. The state has had senators since the 1st Congress. Its Senate seats were declared vacant in Mar 1861 owing to its secession from the Union. They were again filled from February 1871.

Abraham Baldwin

Abraham Baldwin

Abraham Baldwin was an American minister, Patriot, politician, and Founding Father who signed the United States Constitution. Born and raised in Connecticut, he was a 1772 graduate of Yale College. After the Revolutionary War, Baldwin became a lawyer. He moved to the U.S. state of Georgia in the mid-1780s and founded the University of Georgia. Baldwin was a member of Society of the Cincinnati.

John Milledge

John Milledge

John Milledge was an American politician. He fought in the American Revolution and later served as United States Representative, 26th Governor of Georgia, and United States Senator. Milledge was a founder of Athens, Georgia, and the University of Georgia. From January to May 1809, Milledge served briefly as President pro tempore of the United States Senate.

List of United States senators from Kentucky

List of United States senators from Kentucky

This is a list of United States senators from Kentucky. The state's senators belong to Classes 2 and 3. Kentucky is currently represented in the U.S. Senate by Republicans Mitch McConnell and Rand Paul. Currently, on his seventh term in office, McConnell has been the Senate Republican Leader since 2007, and is Kentucky's longest-serving senator.

Buckner Thruston

Buckner Thruston

Buckner Thruston was an American lawyer, slaveowner and politician who served as United States Senator from Kentucky as well as in the Virginia House of Delegates and became a United States circuit judge of the United States Circuit Court of the District of Columbia.

John Pope (Kentucky politician)

John Pope (Kentucky politician)

John Pope was a United States Senator from Kentucky, a member of the United States House of Representatives from Kentucky, Secretary of State of Kentucky, and the third Governor of Arkansas Territory.

List of United States senators from Maryland

List of United States senators from Maryland

This is a list of United States senators from Maryland, which ratified the United States Constitution April 28, 1788, becoming the seventh state to do so. To provide for continuity of government, the framers divided senators into staggered classes that serve six-year terms, and Maryland's senators are in the first and third classes. Before the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913, which allowed for direct election of senators, Maryland's senators were chosen by the Maryland General Assembly, which ratified the amendment on April 1, 2010. Until the assembly appointed George L. Wellington of Cumberland in 1897, senators in class 3 were chosen from the Eastern Shore while senators in class 1 were chosen from the remainder of the state. Barbara Mikulski has been Maryland's longest-serving senator (1987–2017).

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

There were 5 resignations, 2 deaths, and 1 interim appointment. Neither party had a net change.

Senate changes
State
(class)
Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Georgia
(2)
Abraham Baldwin (DR) Died March 4, 1807.
Temporary successor appointed August 27, 1807, to continue the term.
George Jones (DR) August 27, 1807
Connecticut
(3)
Uriah Tracy (F) Died July 19, 1807.
Successor elected October 25, 1807, to finish the term.
Chauncey Goodrich (F) October 25, 1807
Rhode Island
(2)
James Fenner (DR) Resigned September, 1807 to become Governor of Rhode Island.
Successor elected to finish the term.
Elisha Mathewson (DR) October 26, 1807
Vermont
(1)
Israel Smith (DR) Resigned October 1, 1807, to become Governor of Vermont.
Successor elected to finish the term.
Jonathan Robinson (DR) October 10, 1807
Georgia
(2)
George Jones (DR) Successor elected November 7, 1807, to finish the term, in place of a temporary appointee. William H. Crawford (DR) November 7, 1807
Ohio
(1)
John Smith (DR) Resigned April 25, 1808.
Successor appointed to finish the term ending March 4, 1809.
Return J. Meigs Jr. (DR) December 12, 1808
Massachusetts
(1)
John Quincy Adams (F) Resigned June 8, 1808, having broken with his party and lost re-election to the next term.
Winner elected to finish the term, having already won election to the next term.
James Lloyd (F) June 9, 1808
Pennsylvania
(1)
Samuel Maclay (DR) Resigned January 4, 1809, believing he would lose re-election.
Winner was elected to finish the term, having already won election to the next term.
Michael Leib (DR) January 9, 1809

House of Representatives

Of the voting members, there were 4 resignations, 4 deaths, and 2 vacancies from the beginning of this Congress. Democratic-Republicans had no net change and Federalists picked up 2 seats.

House changes
District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
South Carolina
6th
Vacant Levi Casey (DR) died before the end of the preceding Congress Joseph Calhoun (DR) Seated June 2, 1807
Delaware
at-large
Vacant James M. Broom (F) resigned before the beginning of this Congress Nicholas Van Dyke (F) Seated October 6, 1807
Massachusetts
12th
Barnabas Bidwell (DR) Resigned July 13, 1807, after becoming attorney General of Massachusetts Ezekiel Bacon (DR) Seated September 16, 1807
North Carolina
7th
John Culpepper (F) Seat declared vacant January 2, 1808 John Culpepper (F) Seated February 23, 1808
New Jersey
at-large
Ezra Darby (DR) Died January 27, 1808 Adam Boyd (DR) Seated March 8, 1808
Indiana Territory
at-large
Benjamin Parke
Resigned March 1, 1808 Jesse B. Thomas October 22, 1808
Pennsylvania
1st
Joseph Clay (DR) Resigned March 28, 1808 Benjamin Say (DR) Seated November 16, 1808
Massachusetts
2nd
Jacob Crowninshield (DR) Died April 15, 1808 Joseph Story (DR) Seated May 23, 1808
New York
12th
David Thomas (DR) Resigned May 1, 1808, after becoming New York State Treasurer Nathan Wilson (DR) November 7, 1808
Vermont
1st
James Witherell (DR) Resigned May 1, 1808, after becoming judge of Supreme Court for Michigan Territory Samuel Shaw (DR) Seated September 6, 1808
Rhode Island
at-large
Nehemiah Knight (DR) Died June 13, 1808 Richard Jackson Jr. (F) Seated November 11, 1808
Virginia
17th
John Claiborne (DR) Died October 9, 1808 Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Seated November 7, 1808

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List of United States senators from Georgia

List of United States senators from Georgia

Georgia was admitted to the Union on January 2, 1788. The state has had senators since the 1st Congress. Its Senate seats were declared vacant in Mar 1861 owing to its secession from the Union. They were again filled from February 1871.

Abraham Baldwin

Abraham Baldwin

Abraham Baldwin was an American minister, Patriot, politician, and Founding Father who signed the United States Constitution. Born and raised in Connecticut, he was a 1772 graduate of Yale College. After the Revolutionary War, Baldwin became a lawyer. He moved to the U.S. state of Georgia in the mid-1780s and founded the University of Georgia. Baldwin was a member of Society of the Cincinnati.

List of United States senators from Connecticut

List of United States senators from Connecticut

This is a chronological listing of the United States senators from Connecticut.

Chauncey Goodrich

Chauncey Goodrich

Chauncey Goodrich was an American lawyer and politician from Connecticut who represented that state in the United States Congress as both a senator and a representative.

List of United States senators from Rhode Island

List of United States senators from Rhode Island

Rhode Island ratified the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790 and elects its U.S. senators to Class 1 and Class 2. The state's current U.S. senators are Democrats Jack Reed and Sheldon Whitehouse. Claiborne Pell was Rhode Island's longest-serving senator (1961–1997).

James Fenner

James Fenner

James Fenner was an American politician who served as a United States Senator as well as the 7th, 11th and 17th Governor of Rhode Island. He was the son of Arthur Fenner, the fourth governor of Rhode Island.

Governor of Rhode Island

Governor of Rhode Island

The governor of Rhode Island is the head of government of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and serves as commander-in-chief of the state's Army National Guard and Air National Guard. The current governor is Democrat Dan McKee. In their capacity as commander of the national guard, the governor of Rhode Island also has the title of captain general.

Elisha Mathewson

Elisha Mathewson

Elisha Mathewson was a United States Senator from Rhode Island.

Israel Smith

Israel Smith

Israel Smith was an American lawyer and politician. He held a wide variety of positions in the state of Vermont, including as a member of the United States House of Representatives, a member of the United States Senate, the fourth governor of Vermont.

Governor of Vermont

Governor of Vermont

The governor of Vermont is the head of government of Vermont. The officeholder is elected in even-numbered years by direct voting for a term of 2 years. Vermont and bordering New Hampshire are the only states to hold gubernatorial elections every 2 years, instead of every 4 as in the other 48 U.S. states.

Jonathan Robinson (American politician)

Jonathan Robinson (American politician)

Jonathan Robinson was an American politician, lawyer, and judge from the state of Vermont who served as chief justice of the Vermont Supreme Court and a United States senator.

List of United States senators from Ohio

List of United States senators from Ohio

Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and elects U.S. senators to Class 1 and Class 3. Its current U.S. senators are Democrat Sherrod Brown and Republican J. D. Vance, making it one of seven states to have a split United States Senate delegation; these states being Maine, Montana, Ohio itself, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Not counting Vermont, where Independents have caucused with the Democrats since 2001, Ohio has had the longest current split delegation, having had two senators from the opposite parties since 2007. John Sherman was Ohio's longest-serving senator.

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

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John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams was an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829. He previously served as the eighth United States Secretary of State from 1817 to 1825. During his long diplomatic and political career, Adams also served as an ambassador, and as a member of the United States Congress representing Massachusetts in both chambers. He was the eldest son of John Adams, who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801, and First Lady Abigail Adams. Initially a Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party.

Andrew Gregg

Andrew Gregg

Andrew Gregg was an American politician. A Democratic-Republican, he served as a United States Senator for Pennsylvania from 1807 until 1813. Prior to that, he served as a U.S. Representative from 1791 until 1807. From June to December 1809, he served briefly as President pro tempore of the United States Senate.

Francis Malbone

Francis Malbone

Francis Malbone Jr. was an American merchant from Newport, Rhode Island. His father, Francis Sr., and his uncle, Evan, were active in the slave trade in Rhode Island. He held the rank of captain in the Rhode Island Militia and served as the commanding officer of the Artillery Company of Newport from 1792 until his death.

Committee of the whole

Committee of the whole

A committee of the whole is a meeting of a legislative or deliberative assembly using procedural rules that are based on those of a committee, except that in this case the committee includes all members of the assembly. As with other (standing) committees, the activities of a committee of the whole are limited to considering and making recommendations on matters that the assembly has referred to it; it cannot take up other matters or vote directly on the assembly's business. The purpose of a committee of the whole is to relax the usual limits on debate, allowing a more open exchange of views without the urgency of a final vote. Debates in a committee of the whole may be recorded but are often excluded from the assembly's minutes. After debating, the committee submits its conclusions to the assembly and business continues according to the normal rules.

United States House Committee on Accounts

United States House Committee on Accounts

The United States House Committee on Accounts was a standing committee of the US House of Representatives from 1803 to 1946. It had purview over the financial accounts of the House's contingent fund, as well as some matters related to facilities and staffing. In 1946, it was merged into the newly formed the Committee on House Administration.

David Holmes (politician)

David Holmes (politician)

David Holmes was an American politician in Virginia and Mississippi. He served five terms as a US congressman from Virginia's 2nd congressional district, and later was important in Mississippi's development as a state. He was appointed by the federal government as the fourth and last governor of the Mississippi Territory. In 1817 he was unanimously elected as the first governor of the state of Mississippi. He served a term as US senator from Mississippi, appointed to fill a vacancy until elected by the legislature. Elected again as governor, he was forced to resign early due to ill health. He returned to Virginia in his last years.

United States House Committee on Commerce

United States House Committee on Commerce

The United States House Committee on Commerce was a standing committee of the U.S. House from 1819 until 1892; it was established when the previous Committee on Commerce and Manufactures, which has existed since 1795, was split into two different committees. The committee existed until 1891, when its name was changed to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

Thomas Newton Jr.

Thomas Newton Jr.

Thomas Newton Jr. was an American politician. He was born in Norfolk, Virginia.

Joseph Lewis Jr. (Virginia politician)

Joseph Lewis Jr. (Virginia politician)

Joseph Lewis Jr. was an 18th-century and 19th-century politician and lawyer from Virginia.

United States House Committee on Elections

United States House Committee on Elections

The United States House Committee on Elections is a former standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.

John Rhea

John Rhea

John Rhea was an American soldier and politician of the early 19th century who represented Tennessee in the United States House of Representatives. Rhea County, Tennessee and Rheatown, a community and former city in Greene County, Tennessee is named for him.

John Boyle (congressman)

John Boyle (congressman)

John Boyle was a United States representative from Kentucky and later a judge of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, and finally a United States district judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky.

Employees

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

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Architect of the Capitol

Architect of the Capitol

The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is the federal agency responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex. It is an agency of the legislative branch of the federal government and is accountable to the United States Congress and the Supreme Court. The head of the agency is also called "Architect of the Capitol".

Librarian of Congress

Librarian of Congress

The Librarian of Congress is the head of the Library of Congress, appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, for a term of ten years. In addition to overseeing the library, the Librarian of Congress appoints the U.S. poet laureate and awards the Gershwin Prize for Popular Song.

Patrick Magruder

Patrick Magruder

Patrick Magruder was an American lawyer, politician, and librarian who served as a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maryland’s 3rd congressional District from March 4, 1805, to March 3, 1807, and as the 2nd Librarian of the United States Congress, from December 26, 1807, to January 18, 1815.

Chaplain of the United States Senate

Chaplain of the United States Senate

The chaplain of the United States Senate opens each session of the United States Senate with a prayer, and provides and coordinates religious programs and pastoral care support for senators, their staffs, and their families. The chaplain is appointed by a majority vote of the members of the Senate on a resolution nominating an individual for the position. The three most recent nominations have been submitted based on a bipartisan search committee although that procedure is not required.

John Johnson Sayrs

John Johnson Sayrs

John Johnson Sayrs was an American Episcopal clergyman who served as Chaplain of the Senate.

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that broke from the Roman Catholic Church. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government by representative assemblies of elders. Many Reformed churches are organised this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is often applied to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland or to English Dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War.

Secretary of the United States Senate

Secretary of the United States Senate

The secretary of the Senate is an officer of the United States Senate. The secretary supervises an extensive array of offices and services to expedite the day-to-day operations of that body. The office is somewhat analogous to that of the clerk of the United States House of Representatives.

Samuel Allyne Otis

Samuel Allyne Otis

Samuel Allyne Otis was the first Secretary of the United States Senate, serving for its first 25 years. He also served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives and was a delegate to the Confederation Congress in 1787 and 1788.

Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate

Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate

The Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the United States Senate is the protocol officer, executive officer, and highest-ranking federal law enforcement officer of the Senate of the United States. The office of the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate currently has just short of 1,000 full time staff.

Chaplain of the United States House of Representatives

Chaplain of the United States House of Representatives

The chaplain of the United States House of Representatives is the officer of the United States House of Representatives responsible for beginning each day's proceedings with a prayer. The House cites the first half of Article 1, Section 2, Clause 5 in the United States Constitution as giving it the authority to elect a chaplain, "The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers".

Robert Elliott (chaplain)

Robert Elliott (chaplain)

Robert Elliott was a Scots-Irish Presbyterian clergyman who served as the chaplain of the United States House of Representatives (1806–1807) and Chaplain of the Senate of the United States (1808–1809).

Source: "10th United States Congress", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10th_United_States_Congress.

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Notes
  1. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.
References
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
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