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¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!

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The motto of the group
The motto of the group

¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo! (AVC) (English: Alfaro Lives, Dammit![1]), another name for the Fuerzas Armadas Populares Eloy Alfaro (English: Eloy Alfaro Popular Armed Forces), was a clandestine left-wing group in Ecuador, founded in 1982 and named after popular government leader and general Eloy Alfaro.[2] The group was labeled as a terrorist organization for the Ecuadorian state[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] during the period of the former president León Febres Cordero, existing between 1983 to 1991, years where they carried out various armed actions and criminal acts in Ecuador,[11] with Colombian influence (M-19) and Nicaraguan (Nicaraguan Revolution).[12] The group was initially formed sometime in the 1970s, but was not active militarily for the first few years of the 80's.[13]

An openly leftist organization, but not Marxist, they identified with the Democratic Left coalition. The AVC first received national attention in 1983, when it broke into a museum and stole swords used by former president and leader of the liberal Revolution, Eloy Alfaro. Some of the group's leaders were thought to be affiliated with Cuba, Libya and Nicaragua, and the group itself was linked to militant groups in other Latin American countries, such as M-19[14] and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, establishing a group of operations joint operations called America Battalion with these two groups. Between 1986 and 1987, AVC carried out several kidnappings, robbed banks and a factory, seized several radio stations to broadcast their manifesto, and killed four policemen while retrieving a member of the group from police custody. At its height, the AVC had between 200 and 300 members.[15] The AVC did not carry out attacks against the population or large-scale attacks since according to Santiago Kingman, the main ideologue of the AVC ...any bomb exploding alone, senseless... any killing of an unarmed person was stupid.[16]

In response to this activity, the government began conducting raids against the group. The group's leader, Arturo Jarrin, was killed during a shootout with government forces in October 1986.[13] By 1987, a large number of AVC leaders and members had been killed or arrested.[14] In 1989, the Ecuadorian government reached an agreement with the AVC, and the group agreed to end its violence.[13] In 1991, the group was officially reformed as a legitimate political party. A year later, eight members of the group made an illegal but non-violent entry into the British embassy in Quito, demanding the release of a group leader who was later imprisoned by the Ecuadorian government.[2]

They were responsible for several criminal actions, armed robberies to banks, robberies, and kidnappings; highlighting the kidnapping of Nahim Isaías Barquet, general manager of the bank Filanbanco, in September 1985, who died during the intervention for his rescue carried out by the Anti-Terrorist Unit of the Special Forces Brigade of the Ecuadorian Army, ordered by the then president León Febres-Cordero.[17] Due to the death in 1986 of its leader, Arturo Jarrín, arrests and the death of several other members in the same year as a result of the actions carried out by the security forces of the Ecuadorian State, AVC lost strength and was practically eliminated.[15][17][18] According to the book The remnant of AVC it formally handed over its weapons in 1991. The balance of the AVC campaign between 1983 and 1988 was: 16 AVC members, six members of the M-19, 14 police officers killed, more than 20 injured.[19][17][18][20]

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Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometers (621 mi) west of the mainland. The country's capital and largest city is Quito.

Eloy Alfaro

Eloy Alfaro

José Eloy Alfaro Delgado often referred to as "The Old Warrior," was an Ecuadorian politician who served as the President of Ecuador from 1895 to 1901 and from 1906 to 1911. Eloy Alfaro emerged as the leader of the Liberal Party and became a driving force protect fairness, justice and liberty. He became one of the strongest opponents of the pro-Catholic conservative President Gabriel García Moreno (1821–1875). The "Viejo Luchador" played a central role in the Liberal Revolution of 1895 and fought against conservatism for almost 30 years.

León Febres Cordero

León Febres Cordero

León Esteban Febres-Cordero Ribadeneyra, known in the Ecuadorian media as LFC or more simply by his composed surname (Febres-Cordero), was the 35th President of Ecuador, serving a four-year term from 10 August 1984 to 10 August 1988. During his presidency he sought to introduce market-oriented reforms, and also led a security crackdown on a guerrilla group named ¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!.

Nicaraguan Revolution

Nicaraguan Revolution

The Nicaraguan Revolution encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, and the Contra War, which was waged between the FSLN-led government of Nicaragua and the United States–backed Contras from 1981 to 1990. The revolution marked a significant period in the history of Nicaragua and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War, attracting much international attention.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology that was the main communist movement throughout the 20th century. Developed in Russia by the Bolsheviks, it was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, Soviet satellite states in the Eastern Bloc, and various countries in the Non-Aligned Movement and Third World during the Cold War, as well as the Communist International after Bolshevisation. Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam, as well as many other Communist parties, while the state ideology of North Korea is derived from Marxism–Leninism, although its evolution is disputed. Marxist–Leninist states are commonly referred to as "communist states" by Western academics. Marxist–Leninists reject anarchism and left communism, as well as reformist socialism and social democracy. They oppose fascism, imperialism, and liberal democracy. Marxism–Leninism holds that a two-stage communist revolution is needed to replace capitalism. A vanguard party, organized through democratic centralism, would seize power on behalf of the proletariat and establish a one-party socialist state, called the dictatorship of the proletariat. The state would control the means of production, suppress opposition, counter-revolution, and the bourgeoisie, and promote Soviet collectivism, to pave the way for an eventual communist society that would be classless and stateless.

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is an island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located where the northern Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Atlantic Ocean meet. Cuba is located east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the American state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Hispaniola, and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The official area of the Republic of Cuba is 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) but a total of 350,730 km2 (135,420 sq mi) including the exclusive economic zone. Cuba is the second-most populous country in the Caribbean after Haiti, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Libya

Libya

Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest. Libya is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 700,000 square miles, it is the fourth-largest country in Africa and the Arab world, and the 16th-largest in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over three million of Libya's seven million people.

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in Central America, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Managua is the country's capital and largest city. As of 2015, it was estimated to be the second largest city in Central America. Nicaragua's multiethnic population of six million includes people of mestizo, indigenous, European and African heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.

Quito

Quito

Quito, formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital and largest city of Ecuador, with an estimated population of 2.8 million in its urban area. It is also the capital of the province of Pichincha. Quito is located in a valley on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes, at an elevation of 2,850 m (9,350 ft), making it the second-highest capital city in the world.

Filanbanco

Filanbanco

Filanbanco was the largest bank in Ecuador. Founded in the city of Guayaquil, it went bankrupt in 2001 following the banking crisis of 1998.

Background

AVC arose during an economic crisis[21] in the 1980s. During the 1970s Ecuador experienced an annual economic growth rate of 8.1%[21] due in part to high oil prices. In 1982 the economy stagnated due to the fall in the price of oil and the simultaneous rise in interest rates in international markets. The middle and upper classes were the ones who benefited the most from the oil boom, but the popular classes were the ones who suffered the costs of the economic adjustment when the boom ended.[22]

Beginning with President Osvaldo Hurtado (1981-1984) the government of Ecuador applied measures dictated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to restructure the economy. These measures included: reducing fiscal spending, devaluing the local currency, and raising prices.[22] The Febres-Cordero government (1984-1988) exacerbated the economic crisis. With the lowest oil price ever recorded in 1986.[23][24]

His economic team was made up of three economists fully identified with the business sector: Carlos Julio Emanuel, Francisco Swett and Alberto Dahik.[25] They devalued the Sucre, promoting agricultural exports and favoring economic groups. At the same time, they eliminated price controls and reduced the gasoline subsidy, increasing the price of gasoline by 70 percent.[25] The impact of the crisis on the popular sectors increased unemployment and the inflation and reduced consumption.[22] The crisis was felt particularly in the poor sectors of the cities with an average fall in real urban income of 8.7 percent per year from 1981 to 1989, the most large among Latin American countries.[22]

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Osvaldo Hurtado

Osvaldo Hurtado

Luis Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea is an Ecuadorian author and politician who served as President of Ecuador from 24 May 1981 to 10 August 1984.

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a major financial agency of the United Nations, and an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 190 countries. Its stated mission is "working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1944, started on 27 December 1945, at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international monetary system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had XDR 477 billion. The IMF is regarded as the global lender of last resort.

Alberto Dahik

Alberto Dahik

Alberto Dahik Garzozi is an Ecuadorian politician of Lebanese ancestry. He was Vice President of Ecuador from 10 August 1992 to 11 October 1995 during the Sixto Durán Ballén administration.

Ecuadorian sucre

Ecuadorian sucre

The Sucre was the currency of Ecuador between 1884 and 2000. Its ISO code was ECS and it was subdivided into 10 decimos and 100 centavos. The sucre was named after Latin American political leader Antonio José de Sucre. The currency was replaced by the United States dollar as a result of the 1998–99 financial crisis.

1981

1981

1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1981st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 981st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1980s decade.

Conformation

AVC was formed mainly by middle-class students with an urban guerrilla focus. It formed part of other revolutionary organizations such as the Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR). The MIR had student leaders, such as:

  • Fausto Basantes and Ricardo Merino of the Mejía National Institute of Quito[26]
  • Arturo Jarrin. and Hamet Vásconez from La Salle College of Quito (currently La Salle-Conocoto)
  • Juan Cuvi and Juan Carlos Acosta from American College of Quito
  • Edgar Frías from the José Joaquín de Olmedo School, in Guayaquil.
  • There were also alumni from the Colegio Nacional Juan Pío Montúfar, Benalcázar and Cardenal Spellman schools in Quito.[27]

Arturo Jarrín entered the Central University of Ecuador in Quito, to study sociology, leaving it during his fourth year, after participating in popular organization activities in the Ciudadela Ferroviaria de Quito, he joined AVC, becoming the leader of the organization being elected at The First AVC National Conference held in Esmeraldas in February 1983, attended by around 60 guerrillas.[27] In it, the Central Command formed by three people, including Jarrín. Prior to this, in January Jarrín and other guerrillas assaulted the Banco de Fomento. AVC called all bank robberies "financial recoveries," which were the organization's primary means of financial support.[26]

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Revolutionary Left Movement (Chile)

Revolutionary Left Movement (Chile)

The Revolutionary Left Movement is a Chilean far-left Marxist-Leninist communist party and former urban guerrilla organization founded on 12 October 1965. At its height in 1973, the MIR numbered about 10,000 members and associates. The group emerged from various student organizations, mainly from University of Concepción, that had originally been active in the youth organization of the Socialist Party. They established a base of support among the trade unions and shantytowns of Concepción, Santiago, and other cities. Andrés Pascal Allende, a nephew of Salvador Allende, president of Chile from 1970 to 1973, was one of its early leaders. Miguel Enríquez Espinosa was the General Secretary of the party from 1967 until his assassination in 1974 by the DINA.

Quito

Quito

Quito, formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital and largest city of Ecuador, with an estimated population of 2.8 million in its urban area. It is also the capital of the province of Pichincha. Quito is located in a valley on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes, at an elevation of 2,850 m (9,350 ft), making it the second-highest capital city in the world.

Guayaquil

Guayaquil

Guayaquil, officially Santiago de Guayaquil, is the second largest city in Ecuador and also the nation's main port. The city is the capital of Guayas Province and the seat of Guayaquil Canton.

Central University of Ecuador

Central University of Ecuador

The Central University of Ecuador is a national university located in Quito, Ecuador and is the oldest and largest university in Ecuador, and one of the oldest in the Americas. The enrollment at Central University of Ecuador is over 10,000 students per year.

Esmeraldas, Ecuador

Esmeraldas, Ecuador

Esmeraldas is a coastal city in northwestern Ecuador. It is the seat of the Esmeraldas Canton and capital of the Esmeraldas Province. It has an international sea port and a small airport. Esmeraldas is the major seaport of northwestern Ecuador, and it lies on the Pacific coast at the mouth of the Esmeraldas River. It is exactly at the antipodes of Padang, Indonesia. The city is the principal trading hub for the region's agricultural and lumber resources, and is the terminus of the 313-mile (504-km) Trans-Ecuadorian Pipeline from the oil fields in northeastern Ecuador.

Assaults

The following is a partial list of armed robberies of banking institutions carried out by AVC members with the respective amounts stolen. The amounts in US dollars are approximate with the price of the year in which they occurred.[28]

Date City Bank Branch Amount (USD)
July 1983 Quito Multi-exchange agency Headquarters 16,000
March 1984 Quito Multi-exchange agency headquarters 9,000
June 1984 Quito Banco del Pacífico La Villafora 43,000
January 1985 Guayaquil Banco de Descuento Stock truck 32,000
April 1985 Guayaquil Hollandsche Bank-Unie Guayaquil branch 13,000
May 1985 Guayaquil Banco Continental Guayaquil Branch 4,000
June 1985 Quito Banco Consolidado El Labrador agency 18,000
julio de 1985 Guayaquil Banco La Previsora Branch No.7 14,020

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History

The group was initially formed some time in the 1970s but was not militarily active for the first several years of its existence.[13] An avowedly leftist but non-Marxist organisation, they identified with the Democratic Left coalition.[13] AVC first received national attention in 1983, when it broke into a museum and stole swords which had been used by Eloy Alfaro. Some of the group's leaders were thought to be affiliated with Cuba, Libya and Nicaragua, and the group itself was linked to militant groups from other Latin-American countries, such as the M-19[14] and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, establishing a joint operations group called Batallon America with these two groups.[13] From 1986 to 1987, AVC carried out several kidnappings, robbed banks and a factory, took over a number of radio stations in order to broadcast their manifesto, and killed four police officers while retrieving a group member from police custody.[14]

In response to this activity, the government began carrying out raids against the group. The group's leader Arturo Jarrin was killed during a gun battle with government forces in October 1986.[13] By 1987, a large number of AVC's leaders and members had either been killed or arrested.[14] In 1989, the government of Ecuador reached an agreement with AVC, with the group agreeing to end its violence.[2][14] In 1991, the group officially reformed as a legitimate political party. One year later, eight group members made an illegal, but non-violent entry into the British Embassy in Quito, demanding the release of a group leader who was then imprisoned by the Ecuadorian government.

Robbery of the sword of Eloy Alfaro

Members of the guerrilla Alfaro Vive Carajo pose next to the Eloy Alfaro's sword.
Members of the guerrilla Alfaro Vive Carajo pose next to the Eloy Alfaro's sword.

The first operation to receive extensive media coverage was the theft of the swords of Eloy Alfaro and Pedro José Montero from the Municipal Museum of Guayaquil, on August 11.[28] In January 2012, Rosa Mireya Cárdenas, who served as Secretary of Peoples,[29] as a delegate of former AVC members, she returned the swords to the then President of Ecuador Rafael Correa.[30][31]

1983-1985

Since the beginning of 1983, the AVC carried out a large number of operations, which included actions such as bank robberies and graffiti, seeking in this way to achieve loudness in the media, which according to the AVC, were controlled by the "right".[12]

The first National Conference is held between February 12 and 14, 1983 in Tonsupa Esmeraldas, where the "Eloy Alfaro People's Revolutionary Forces" are constituted, under the Slogan "Alfaro Lives, Dammit".[32] On March 11, an attempt was made to assault the payer of Casa Baca (Quito), as a result of which Ricardo Merino and Vicente López were arrested.[33] On July 8, the Bust of Eloy Alfaro was stolen from the headquarters of the Supreme Liberal Junta in Quito[33]

On September 22, at the Pululahua resort (Pichincha),[20] Jarrín, Mireya Cárdenas and Edgar Frías held a press conference in which they announced the existence of the organization.[34] On November 2, the facilities of the radio stations: Noticia, La Fabulosa and Universal de Guayaquil were seized to condemn the intervention of United States in Nicaragua.[20] At the end of 1983 Jarrín and about twenty guerrillas traveled to Libya to receive military training in one of the camps sponsored by Muamar el Gaddafi.[35] Basantes and Frías temporarily assumed control of AVC. In October, during training near Esmeraldas, Basantes and Cárdenas were arrested for illegal possession of weapons.

In April 1984, after the return of Jarrín from Libya and the release of Basantes from prison, the members of the AVC met and elected a Central Command made up of Jarrín, Basantes and Frías.[34][20] On May 4, the AVC occupied the offices of the Ecuadorian News Agency (ANE) in Guayaquil to send a message against León Febres-Cordero, then a candidate for the presidency of Ecuador, and in support of Rodrigo Borja.[34] On May 29, AVC militants abandoned pamphlets and detonated a low-power explosive in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Quito.[36]

On June 12, the brothers Ricardo and Lilian Jarrín (both disguised as religious) assaulted the Banco de los Andes in Quito.[20] On June 14, Jarrín along with half a dozen guerrillas assaulted the Banco del Pacífico, also in Quito.[34] After the robbery, Jarrín and other guerrillas took refuge in the house of Consuelo Benavides, a worker at the Ministry of Industries and an AVC sympathizer. The police captured and tortured them.[35] After the arrest of his sister and the threat of arrest of their parents by the police, Jarrín confessed his identity, his membership of the AVC and his participation in the robbery of Banco del Pacífico.[37] Benavides for her part remained detained for months, accused of illicit association.[37] She was released on April 14, 1985, after which she contacted the AVC in a rural area of Esmeraldas.[35][38]

On August 10, the day that Febres-Cordero assumed the presidency of Ecuador, the AVC took over several radio stations to announce its opposition to the incoming government.[34] In December, the AVC stole toys from a Quito factory and then distributed them among the residents of the poor neighborhoods of the city. At the end of that month Hamet Vásconez, who had been in El Salvador, arrived in Ecuador and joined the AVC Central Command, replacing Jarrín, who was detained in the García Moreno Prison in Quito.[34]

Months later on November 1, they seized the newspaper Hoy and forced to include in its edition two pages with information about the group.[39] On November 8, they kidnapped a reporter from the newspaper Meridiano de Guayaquil to force an interview with Fausto Basantes Borja.[20]

On January 2, 1985, they assaulted an armored vehicle of the Banco de Descuento in Guayaquil, resulting in the death of a guerrilla Jorge Lima Trujillo and the arrest of another.[20]

On March 12, they attacked the weapons warehouse of the National Police at the headquarters of the Central de Radiopatrullas. Seven guerrillas dressed as policemen, one with lieutenant's insignia, overpowered the five policemen on duty, cut the telephone lines, disconnected the radio system;[40] stealing 631 38 caliber revolvers, 40 carbines and several boxes of bullets.[28][40] Days later the police found part of the weapons in a vacant lot.[34] In April Hamet Vásconez was arrested and his position in the AVC Central Command was taken over by Pedro Moncada.[35] Colombian M-19 guerrilla member Fernando Carmona was also detained.[20]

On April 29 of the same year, the director of the now-defunct José Franco Piedra Institute for Agrarian Reform and Colonization was kidnapped. In an anonymous call, the Alfaro Vive group claimed responsibility for the kidnapping.[41][42] On May 10, they seized radio station Iris from Esmeraldas to broadcast an AVC proclamation.[20] On May 21, they assaulted the Continental Bank of Guayaquil.[20] On May 24 they took over the stations Z-1, 11-Q and Radio Uno from Guayaquil.[20] On May 29 they took over Radio Continente.[20]

On August 2, they assaulted a Filanbanco armored vehicle in Guayaquil, where Enrique Mejía and Joel Vargas were arrested.[20] On August 9, they assaulted a PRONACA factory on the road to El Quinche where they were arrested three members.[20] On August 30, during a police operation in the Alborada citadel in Guayaquil, a member died and four others were arrested.[43]

On October 16, they seized the embassy of Mexico in response to the rupture of their diplomatic relations with Nicaragua.[20] The same seized Radio Visión to force them to conduct an interview with Arturo Jarrín.[20] On October 25, they assaulted the Citibank agency in Quito disguised as nuns and lottery sellers.[20]

On December 7, they attacked an ENPROVIT warehouse in Durán.[20]

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Democratic Left (Ecuador)

Democratic Left (Ecuador)

The Democratic Left is a social-democratic political party in Ecuador. It is a former member of the Socialist International. At the legislative elections, held on 20 October 2002, the party won at least 13 out of 100 seats. Its candidate Rodrigo Borja, who was president of Ecuador from 1988 to 1992, won 14.4% of the vote in the presidential elections of the same day. For the October 2006 elections, it has entered into an alliance with the Ethics and Democracy Network, to support the ticket formed by former Vice-President León Roldós, and Ramiro González, former Prefect of the Pichincha Canton. The party won 13 seats in Congress again, while its presidential ticket came in fourth place.

19th of April Movement

19th of April Movement

The 19th of April Movement, or M-19, was a Colombian urban guerrilla movement active in the late 1970s and 1980s. After its demobilization it became a political party, the M-19 Democratic Alliance, or AD/M-19.

Political party

Political party

A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals.

Quito

Quito

Quito, formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital and largest city of Ecuador, with an estimated population of 2.8 million in its urban area. It is also the capital of the province of Pichincha. Quito is located in a valley on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes, at an elevation of 2,850 m (9,350 ft), making it the second-highest capital city in the world.

Eloy Alfaro

Eloy Alfaro

José Eloy Alfaro Delgado often referred to as "The Old Warrior," was an Ecuadorian politician who served as the President of Ecuador from 1895 to 1901 and from 1906 to 1911. Eloy Alfaro emerged as the leader of the Liberal Party and became a driving force protect fairness, justice and liberty. He became one of the strongest opponents of the pro-Catholic conservative President Gabriel García Moreno (1821–1875). The "Viejo Luchador" played a central role in the Liberal Revolution of 1895 and fought against conservatism for almost 30 years.

Rafael Correa

Rafael Correa

Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017. The leader of the PAIS Alliance political movement from its foundation until 2017, Correa is a democratic socialist and his administration focused on the implementation of left-wing policies. Internationally, he served as president pro tempore of the UNASUR.

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in Central America, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Managua is the country's capital and largest city. As of 2015, it was estimated to be the second largest city in Central America. Nicaragua's multiethnic population of six million includes people of mestizo, indigenous, European and African heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.

Libya

Libya

Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest. Libya is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 700,000 square miles, it is the fourth-largest country in Africa and the Arab world, and the 16th-largest in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over three million of Libya's seven million people.

President of Ecuador

President of Ecuador

The president of Ecuador, officially called the Constitutional President of the Republic of Ecuador, serves as both the head of state and head of government of Ecuador. It is the highest political office in the country as the head of the executive branch of government. Per the current constitution, the President can serve two four-year terms. Prior to that, the president could only serve one four-year term.

Rodrigo Borja Cevallos

Rodrigo Borja Cevallos

Rodrigo Borja Cevallos is an Ecuadorian politician who was President of Ecuador from 10 August 1988 to 10 August 1992. He is also a descendant of the House of Borgia.

May 29

May 29

May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 216 days remain until the end of the year.

National Police of Ecuador

National Police of Ecuador

The National Police of Ecuador is the national police force and the main civil law enforcement agency of Ecuador. It is commanded by the Commanding General and subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior.

In popular culture

The group is the subject of a 2007 documentary film titled ¡Alfaro vive carajo! Del Sueño Al Caos.[44]

The post-hardcore rock group At The Drive-In has an EP named ¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!

Source: "¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/¡Alfaro_Vive,_Carajo!.

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Notes
  1. ^ Phil Gunson; Andrew Thompson; Greg Chamberlain (1989). The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics in South America. Routledge. p. 3.
  2. ^ a b c "Party Politics in the 1980s". countrystudies.us.
  3. ^ "M-19 capacitó a alfaristas y participó en sus asaltos". El Universo (in Spanish). 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  4. ^ "ANNUAL REPORT OF THE INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 1988-1989". Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  5. ^ "Alfaro Vive, Carajo (AVC) | Terrorist Groups | TRAC". www.trackingterrorism.org. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  6. ^ Terrorist Group Profiles. DIANE Publishing. 1989-08-01. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  7. ^ "NCJRS Abstract - National Criminal Justice Reference Service". Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  8. ^ El Universo. Un capítulo de la historia del país con dos visiones opuestas. 20, junio de 2010
  9. ^ Arturo Jarrín fue drogado en Panamá y traído a Ecuador en estado de inconsciencia.El Telégrafo1 de julio de 2016. El Telégrafo20 de junio de 2010
  10. ^ El Comercio. Fiscalía acusará a 13 personas por caso Arturo Jarrín. 28 de abril de 2016
  11. ^ Comisión de Defensa Jurídico-Institucional de la Policía Nacional. 2010 TERRORISMO Y SUBVERSIÓN. Por: Manuel Sarmiento Mera. Con: Varios créditos autorales. CAPÍTULO I; La búsqueda de la verdad 19, Una verdad profesional 22, La gran verdad institucional 22, Acciones delictivas cometidas en el Ecuador desde 1976 por los grupos subversivos: Alfaro Vive Carajo (AVC), Montoneras Patria Libre (MPL) y el Movimiento Colombiano 19 de abril (M-19). 1984: DIVERSIDAD DE ACCIONES DELINCUENCIALES: El 12 de junio se produce el asalto al Banco de los Andes, agencia Kennedy, en Quito. Los asaltantes Ricardo Arturo Jarrín Jarrín y Lilian Beatriz Jarrín Jarrín, miembros del grupo AVC con hábitos religiosos cometieron el atraco. Toma el mando Arturo Jarrín, adoptando el apelativo dado por la prensa todos esos años, se funda el grupo Alfaro Vive hasta su disolución en el gobierno posterior. Borja.
  12. ^ a b "Alfaro Vive Carajo: La guerrilla que conmocionó a Ecuador". Resumen latinoamericano (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2018-06-05.
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  15. ^ a b Anderson, Sean; Sloan, Stephen (2009). Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. p. 14.
  16. ^ Isabel Dávalos(director) (2007). Alfaro vive ¡carajo!: del sueño al caos. Ecuador: Cabeza Hueca Producciones. 35 minutes in.
  17. ^ a b c Report of the Truth Commission (Volume 3: Case reports. Period 1984-1988). 2010. ISBN 9789978928493.
  18. ^ a b Informe de la Comisión de la Verdad (Tomo 1: Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos). 2010. ISBN 9789978928479.
  19. ^ Antonio Rodríguez Jaramillo (2014). Memoria de las Espadas: Alfaro Vive Carajo, los argumentos de la historia (PDF) (in Spanish). IAEN. p. 18.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Comisión de Defensa Jurídico-Institucional de la Policía Nacional. "TERRORISMO Y SUBVERSIÓN -La verdad que no se ha dicho" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  21. ^ a b "Economía política en la democracia ecuatoriana". Diario El Mercurio - Cuenca Ecuador (in European Spanish). 2011-01-19. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  22. ^ a b c d Weiss, Wendy (1997). "Debt and Devaluation: The Burden on Ecuador's Popular Class". Latin American Perspectives. 24 (4): 9–33.
  23. ^ CIA (1986-04-23). ECUADOR: Febres-Cordero Administration and its Challenges (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2017.
  24. ^ "León Febres Cordero: Confrontational President of Ecuador". The Independent. 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  25. ^ a b Catherine M. Conaghan; James M. Malloy; Luis A. Abugattas (1990). "Business and the 'Boys': The Politics of Neoliberalism in the Central Andes". Latin American Research Review. 25 (2): 3–30.
  26. ^ a b Terán, Juan. "Apuntes para la historia de AVC" (PDF). Editorial Último Recurso. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
  27. ^ a b Jijón (1986-11-07). Alfaro vive ¡carajo!: del robo de la espada a la sangre de Jarrín. Vistazo. pp. 4–10.
  28. ^ a b c Zambranod, Alfonso (1990). Ran Gazit: La sombra tras el poder. Guayaquil: EDINO.
  29. ^ "The swords arouse differences in the former AVC". El Comercio. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  30. ^ "Swords of Alfaro and Montero were delivered to President Correa". El Telégrafo (in Spanish). 2012-01-28. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  31. ^ "Patrimonio certifies that Alfaro's sword is genuine". El Telégrafo. 2012-01-31.
  32. ^ Rodríguez Jaramillo, Antonio (2014). Memoria de las Espadas: Alfaro Vive Carajo, los argumentos de la historia (PDF) (in Spanish). IAEN. p. 41.
  33. ^ a b Rodríguez Jaramillo, Antonio (2014). Memoria de las Espadas: Alfaro Vive Carajo, los argumentos de la historia (PDF) (in Spanish). IAEN. p. 133.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Terán, Juan. "Apuntes para la historia de AVC" (PDF). Editorial Último Recurso. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
  35. ^ a b c d Rodolfo, Pérez. "Biografía de Pedro Moncada Awad". Diccionario Biográfico del Ecuador (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
  36. ^ "GTD ID:198405290001". Global Terrorism Database. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  37. ^ a b Jarrín, Ricardo (1991). El cementerio de los vivos. Ediciones C.T.E. Quito.
  38. ^ Jarrín, Juan luis (2004). Introducción a El cementerio de los vivos, Tercera Edición. Comité Ecuatoriano contra la Impunidad. Quito.
  39. ^ "Un capítulo de la historia del país con dos visiones opuestas". El Universo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-11-28.
  40. ^ a b Un detenido y ninguna pista en asalto a recinto policial. El Universo. 1985-03-15.
  41. ^ "Un Día como hoy". El Universo. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  42. ^ "GTD ID:198504290008". Global Terrorism Database. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  43. ^ Tamayo G., Eduardo. "Gobierno de León Febres Cordero (1984-1988)" (PDF). Resistencias al autoritarismo. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
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References

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